No. 1999/76 Geneva, 21 October 1999
The Strategic Plan for the Convention
1. A copy of the proposed framework for the Strategic Plan for the Convention was sent to Parties on 12 March 1999 with Notification to the Parties No. 1999/31.
2. Comments received were taken into account by the working group of the Standing Committee on this issue. The working group then consulted the Animals and Plants Committees in order to seek their assistance in the preparation of a plan of action to implement the Strategic Plan.
3. At the 42nd meeting of the Standing Committee (28 September to 1 October 1999), a further draft of a Strategic Plan was accepted by the Committee. The working group was instructed to continue its work in refining the document.
4. The Secretariat has now added to the draft Strategic Plan a series of action points, which are mainly based on the contribution from the Plants Committee.
5. The Parties are invited to consider this document and to send their comments to the Secretariat, to be received by 22 November 1999 at the latest.
CITES AND THE REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN WILD FAUNA AND FLORA
STRATEGIC VISION THROUGH 2005
International trade in any wild fauna or flora shall be sustainable
TO ENSURE THAT NO SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA OR FLORA BECOMES OR REMAINS SUBJECT TO UNSUSTAINABLE EXPLOITATION BECAUSE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
The purpose of the Strategic Plan is to improve the working of the Convention so that international trade in wild fauna and flora is increasingly and consistently conducted at sustainable levels. Where uncertainty remains as to whether trade is sustainable, the precautionary principle will prevail as the ultimate safeguard. However, a successful outcome of the implementation of the Strategic Plan will be reducing the requirement to bring the precautionary principle into play.
The Strategic Plan confirms the recognition by the Parties that sustainable trade in wild fauna and flora can make a major contribution to securing the broader and not incompatible objectives of sustainable development and bio-diversity conservation. However, it also recognizes that the Convention must continue to ensure that proper trade mechanisms are put in place. Such mechanisms depend upon availability of and access to reliable scientific data and to information generated by effective monitoring systems to counter over-exploitation. However, information by itself is not enough. Such trade mechanisms also require strong national capacity backed by good co-operation at national, regional and global levels.
To achieve this purpose, seven goals have been identified as the key components of the Strategic Plan. It is important to realize that the successful achievement of Goal 7, allied to Goal 5, will greatly enhance the achievement of Goals 1, 2, 3 and 4. Securing a strong financial basis must therefore be given a major effort, not withstanding the importance of the other goals.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was signed on 3 March 1973. The Convention resulted from an expression of concern by the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Stockholm, Sweden concerning the rate at which the world's wild fauna and flora were being threatened by unregulated international trade. Drafts of what became the Washington Convention or CITES were sent to governments by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 1967, 1969 and 1971. The final draft, after review by governments, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and others, was discussed at a Plenipotentiary Conference in Washington, D.C., United States of America. At its conclusion, twenty-one of the eighty countries represented at the Conference signed the Convention. Requiring ten countries to ratify, the Convention entered into force on 1 July 1975.
In the intervening twenty-five years, the number of countries that have acceded to the Convention has continued to increase. With more than 140 Parties, CITES is regarded widely as one of the most important legal international conservation instruments. During this period, the Conference of the Parties has shown itself to be capable of adapting to changing circumstances and, through Conference Resolutions, has demonstrated an ability to construct practical solutions to increasingly complex wildlife trade problems. For example, the Parties have adopted "ranching" and other control techniques such as annual quotas for managing the harvesting of some Appendix I-listed species at levels that do not threaten their conservation status. In 1994 the Conference of the Parties identified the information requirements necessary to extend the ranching concept for specific application to marine turtles.
More recently, proposals to amend the appendices to the Convention have become increasingly complex and sensitive. As a result, the 8th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (Kyoto, 1992) initiated a process to review the "Berne Criteria" that had been in place since 1976 and were proving to be too general and inadequate. This resulted in the adoption of new and more objective, scientifically-based criteria to guide amendments to Appendices I and II. In adopting the new criteria, the Parties recognized the increasing acceptance, by the international community, to apply the precautionary principle to the decision-making process. Accordingly, its application is embraced in considerations involving the transfer of species from Appendix I to Appendix II. When the new criteria were adopted in 1994, the Parties, as an expression of the need for a flexible approach to CITES implementation, agreed to incorporate a review process into the new criteria. This process has commenced, and will strengthen further the scientific basis of the decision-making process for amending the appendices to the Convention.
The ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (Fort Lauderdale, 1994) commissioned a review of the Convention's effectiveness. The principal purpose of the review was to evaluate the extent to which the Convention had achieved its objectives, the progress made since CITES came into being and, most importantly, to identify deficiencies and requirements necessary to strengthen the Convention and help plan for the future. At its 10th meeting, the Conference agreed to an Action Plan for implementing certain findings and recommendations of the review. A central finding was the need for a Strategic Plan.
With this Strategic Plan, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention has mapped the Convention's direction as it enters the new millennium. The plan forms the basis for the Convention's participation in the wider international nature conservation arena as developed since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and includes issues such as:
- stewardship of natural resources and their use at sustainable levels;
- safeguarding of wildlife as integral to the global ecosystem on which all life depends;
- need for deeper understanding of the cultural and economic issues at play in producer and consumer countries; and
- wider involvement of civic society in the development of conservation policies and practices.
This Plan presents the Convention's Strategic Vision as it enters the new millennium. It clearly focuses on a limited number of priority goals and objectives deemed critical to meeting the Convention's purpose to ensure that no species of wild fauna or flora becomes or remains subject to unsustainable exploitation because of international trade. If actively pursued, this Plan will bring the Convention's purpose closer to reality by the year 2005.
Goal 1: ENHANCE THE CAPACITY OF EACH PARTY TO IMPLEMENT THE CONVENTION
The effectiveness of the Convention depends on a co-ordinated process of implementation that guarantees, in the long term, the achievement by all Parties of the Convention's purpose and objectives outlined in this Strategic Plan. The need for a co-ordinated process has grown as the Convention faces up to trade issues involving species that often fall beyond the direct reach of the management and scientific authorities. Also, it is recognized that for trade to be based on sustainable use, social and economic incentives are needed to bring local communities and local authorities into partnership with government under an appropriate legislative, policy and financial framework.
Therefore enhanced capacity at the national level means improving the following:
- agency capacity and co-operation;
- policy formulation;
- community, local authority and Government partnerships;
- direct benefit and revenue derivation;
- information on which decisions are based; and
- national legislation and law enforcement capability.
These improvements, in turn, should enable better management of wild animals and plants, and thus reduce the need to include species in CITES appendix listings. It is also important to consider the potential of regional co-ordination and collaboration for national capacity building efforts.
To assist in the development of appropriate domestic legislation and policies that encourage the adoption and implementation of social and economic incentives allied to legal instruments that:
- Promote and regulate sustainable management of wild fauna and flora.
- Promote and regulate responsible trade in wild fauna and flora.
Development of templates of best practice legislative provisions - there need to be several forms recognising differences in language/culture
Development of a planning guide to legislation provisions - including a scientific basis for decision making which is woven into the legislation (to enhance capacity building)
Exchange of experience on provisions that work well or not well
Parties through Secretariat
Ensure adequate review of satellite legislation (such as laws relations to land tenure, access to natural resources, etc.) which may be having a significant impact on the conservation status of species, as well as the impact of legislation relatives to conservation of wild plants and animals.
To strengthen the administrative, management and scientific capacity of Parties by improving the co-ordination between management and scientific authorities with other national agencies responsible for wild animals and plants.
Regional and within-Party workshops to identify functional roles of all levels of administration and related agencies
Produce template procedural manuals- customised for regional differences
Directory within government for CITES issues
Parties to designate a SA. (This is the context for scientific basis to answer questions such as - what species are traded)
Parties to designate, Secretariat to follow up
Improve co-ordination between SAs and other agencies (Univers,Arial,Helveticaities, museums etc) to maximise transfer of knowledge skills.
Collate and make accessible lists of specialists (regional).
Scientific and Management Authorities
To encourage Parties to strengthen their enforcement capacity and to improve co-ordination among Management Authorities and other agencies (e.g. Police, Customs and veterinary and phytosanitary services).
To facilitate development and use of appropriate technologies and information management systems that enhance and expedite the collection, submission and exchange of accurate information.
A survey should be conducted
Regional Representatives on Animals and Plants Committees
Encourage use of technology such as CD-ROM for data distribution to Parties
Develop an information management strategy developed and training campaigns. A template pilot project is underway in Africa. The strategy will identify what technologies are needed. This strategy can be developed for other regions
Develop a "plain" language guide to the significant trade process which explains the decision basis. Relates to goal of understanding the convention
To encourage organizations capable of supporting the Convention to assist the Secretariat and Parties in building national capacities through training and other activities and to facilitate improved access to and management of data bases.
Make relevant databases user-friendly
To ensure that all Parties have at least one designated Scientific Authority with experts in wild fauna and flora.
Develop appropriate incentive measures to go to Standing Committee
To increase the effectiveness of the Scientific Authorities of the Parties.
Development of a manual specifying the obligations and procedures of the Scientific Authorities in order to encourage the development of specific courses for the Scientific Authorities regarding their responsibilities and work methods
Secretariat with Animals and Plants Committees
Development of regional directories that list the botanists in each region who are experts in CITES-listed plants
The Plants Committee will communicate to the Parties the importance and advisability of including plants experts within the structure of the Scientific Authorities
Get templates out
To encourage Parties to develop and implement effective management programmes for the conservation and recovery of species, leading to their ultimate deletion from the appendices.
Circulation of the experience gained by different countries in conservation, management and the recovery of species to other countries
Promotion of the establishment of support mechanisms in the conservation, management and the recovery of species in developing countries.
National and regional networked rescue centres for animals and plants and to promote legislation to move them across borders.
To develop action plans for threatened species. Appendix I a priority for scientifically sound management plans. AC and PC to be involved with reviewing management plans.
Parties, Secretariat, Animals and Plants Committees
To encourage the proper funding for CITES implementation and enforcement by Parties, including the adoption of national mechanisms that have resource users make a greater contribution to such funding.
To fully use the potential of regional co-ordination and collaboration in capacity building efforts.
Interaction with regional networks - identify and make contact with relevant organisations
AC and PC with Secretariat
Promotion of the establishment of a fund that will facilitate the tasks of the regional representatives on the Animals and Plants Committees
Secretariat with SC and COP
Work closely with regional UNEP offices to effect greater capacity in Parties
Secretariat with Parties
Goal 2: STRENGTHEN THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
The work associated with effective implementation of the Convention entails not only the efficient conduct of business at meetings of the Conference of the Parties and its Committees, but also, and perhaps more importantly, the day-to-day implementation activities of Parties. While other factors may come into play in these arenas, they do not override the need for sound, science-based decisions in all areas of the Convention's application and at all levels of its implementation.
Increasingly, the Conference of the Parties is required to address and resolve difficult , complex trade and management issues involving species that are economically important resources. Within the context of the need for non-detriment findings, the Convention is grounded in sound biological principles. This view was reaffirmed by the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (Fort Lauderdale, 1994) with the adoption of new criteria for amending Appendices I and II. In this regard, practical follow-up action to enhance the conservation and recovery of taxa included in Appendix I remains an important element of the Convention to be implemented effectively. Continued strengthening of the treaty's scientific basis is critical to the continued success of the Convention and its relevance as a major international instrument to ensure that wild animals and plants subject to international trade are used at levels that are sustainable by the wild populations.
To ensure that the Convention's appendices correctly reflect the conservation and management needs of species.
Revision of the Appendices so that only the taxa that fulfil all the criteria remain listed
Animals and Plants Committees
The significant trade review needs to continue. The impact these activities have had on implementation of CITES should be examined. The review should continue with both those species on the Appendices and those not on. The difficult question of a measure of effectiveness needs to be resolved. Part of the Strategic Plan should be to measure performance - indicators needed to be developed
Animals and Plants Committees
Uplisting from App II to App I is usually seen as a failure, but may be a positive - e.g. the crocodile. Need similar positive sustainable use (also under goal 4). App I to App II are successes
Need to identify - which species/taxa have conservation needs - then what those need are - then get agreement from the range states - this to be done within regions
Animals and Plants Committees
Regions to propose taxa - both unlisted taxa which require listing and listed taxa for review
To ensure that decisions to amend the Convention's appendices are founded on sound and relevant scientific information that addresses agreed biological and trade criteria for such amendments.
Parties to be urged to follow the criteria in Resolution Conf. 9.24
Animals, Plants and Standing Committees
The summary tables of the criteria in Resolution Conf. 9.24 to be disseminated
Scientific basis of listing proposal to be actively considered in Animals and Plants Committees and recommendations provided on request to Parties. For this reason a detailed analysis of proposals by the AC or PC is necessary. This analysis would take into account whether or not the proposals were based on quantitative data taken directly form field studies. It would also take into account the backed quality of these studies in the national and/or international scientific community
Animals and Plants Committees
Secretariat, in discharging its responsibility to review proposals, to do so in consultation with AC and PC with strong participation of range states. Legitimize review of proposals by AC and PC
Hold a meeting of the Animals and Plants Committees immediately following the decisions of the COP on all proposals in order to analyse and discuss the consequences
Animals and Plants Committees
More co-operation with international trade monitoring bodies, use of standard units
PC, AC, Secretariat
Annual report information to be analysed as well as just collated
To improve the scientific basis by which Scientific Authorities make non-detriment findings.
Formulation of a strategy that would include the scientific community in the Committee's decisions (Univers,Arial,Helveticaities, research centres and institutes, botanic gardens, national parks, etc.)
To develop practical (minimum standard) guidelines for making non-detrimental findings
Secretariat with AC and PC
To ensure secure funding basis for undertaking field studies identified under significant trade process- should be targeted towards CBD objectives
Scientific Authorities to exchange information
Regional representatives to be included in and facilitate the information exchange
Set up a species management website that can be accessed by Parties
Ensure a proportion of money from harvest goes back to research and monitoring
Required for review through relevant Committee. How quota is set to be explained on application form
AC and PC
The adaptive management approach needs greater recognition
Template management systems of guidelines/protocols developed with review by AC and PC
Animals and Plants Committees
Initiate more interaction with CBD - in particular through its clearing house mechanism
Create better mechanisms within Party administrations for interaction between CITES and CBD areas
To improve the co-ordination between CITES Management and Scientific Authorities.
Scientific Authorities should be in a position to make independent findings under Articles III and IV that cannot be overridden
To develop innovative technologies and encourage relevant research, including research into CITES implementation and enforcement and to pursue these objectives, where appropriate, at the regional level.
Determination of the projects that need to be taken on, both on a national as well as regional level
AC and PC
Establishment of criteria for the selection of projects and the evaluation of the results
Seek input from enforcement agencies as to their needs
Educate enforcement agencies re technology which could be useful to them e.g. microchipping, DNA
Outreach to foundations for funding
Parties and Secretariat
To contribute articles to Secretariat's newsletters- reports on 'hot spots'
Complete and disseminate information sheets/manual- focus on key target species
Parties and Secretariat
Maximize use of digital technology e.g. email, CD-ROM, Internet
Parties and Secretariat
To communicate research needs to academic community
Parties and Secretariat
Tailor scholarships/postgraduate courses to encourage research on CITES issues
Transferring modern propagation and breeding techniques and knowledge to countries of origin
Strategies and technologies and management to link with wild populations
Identification of relevant technology followed by compilation of list of available expertise
Scientific Authorities and Regional Representatives
Use technology that focuses on saving wild populations e.g. African cycad micro chipping
List of clearly articulated CITES problems and needs that require research with links to potential funding agencies
Parties and Secretariat
To solicit funding for regional workshops
Establish regional CITES implementation co-ordinator positions, to be situated within existing regional institutions
Goal 3: CONTRIBUTE TO THE REDUCTION AND ULTIMATE ELIMINATION OF ILLEGAL TRADE IN WILD FAUNA AND FLORA
The illegal trade in wild animals and plants is a major factor in the depletion of the world's natural resources in exchange for commercial gain. It undermines the conservation efforts of developing countries, affects the income of rural populations and has driven several species to the brink of extinction. Experience has shown that CITES enforcement would greatly benefit from a higher degree of co-ordination among the authorities and enforcement agencies within Parties. In addition, there is a need to heighten the awareness of and understanding by the Judiciary of their potential role in deterring illegal activities relating to wild fauna and flora. Enforcement of the Convention is primarily a matter of national competence, but bilateral, regional and global co-operation is elementary in the combat against illegal international trade. As for a number of other CITES goals, the need for regional co-operation to combat wildlife crime is particularly obvious. The involvement of the WCO and ICPO-Interpol in enforcement questions is further clearly essential.
To promote a high degree of co-operation, co-ordination and collaboration between national and international law enforcement agencies.
Communicate priorities for enforcement to enforcement agencies, for example identifying one major priority per year
Train staff in enforcement agencies: break into their own existing training sessions / information networks
Improve distribution of existing tools for enforcement on plants (CITES-Newsletter, Checklists, etc.)
Increase use of simple targeted materials (posters, leaflets, articles).
Parties and Secretariat
Award "smart enforcers" (Plantbuster of the Year / Golden Cactus Award)
Build capacity in enforcement agencies: Each enforcement agency to identify suitable contact person for CITES/plants issues
Provide information on illegal trade, seizures & ongoing investigations to relevant Parties
To stimulate and participate in bilateral, regional and global efforts to combat illegal trade in wild fauna and flora.
Parties to report on level of communication/collaboration between agencies, especially SA-Enforcement
Liaison with Interpol and WCO Working Groups on Environmental Crime
To encourage the development of effective regional co-operative efforts, including training, particularly among countries with common borders.
Initiate regional enforcement contact networks, e.g. to operate informally through email. PC/AC regional reps to be included, subject to confidentiality requirements (i.e. on generic issue level, not specific investigations)
To encourage mutual technical assistance, including the exchange of information, in enforcement matters.
Educate enforcement agencies re technology that could be useful to them e.g. microchipping, DNA
Active collaboration in the production process of pertinent identification materials, as well as the production of other materials that could be used in training courses for the authorities in charge of enforcement
Promotion of the development of new technologies for the identification of species in trade
Identification sheets of the proposed taxa to be included in the proposals
To implement appropriate education and awareness programmes so as to encourage greater local community participation in combating illegal trade, thus promoting greater voluntary compliance by user groups.
Assess level of understanding of CITES/ what the misunderstandings are at the user level (base for public related campaign)
Parties that have educational material to send it to the Secretariat as an example for other Parties
Target information to different stakeholders in their own publications in their own "language", e.g. scientific journals, traders' newsletters)
Display at COPs of existing educational/enforcement materials from the Parties
Better use of electronic information
Cultivate more continuity in the flow of information by identifying long term exchange persons
To promote and/or support courses to train trainers
To promote a greater understanding by the judiciary of the social and economic significance and conservation threats posed by illegal trade in wild fauna and flora.
Promote judicial awareness of CITES issues, contribute papers, articles to law journals, legal conferences, judges, prosecutors
To develop appropriate management strategies and incentives for promoting a change from illegal to legal use of wild fauna and flora.
Goal 4: TO PROMOTE GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONVENTION
To ensure better implementation of CITES, public support and participation must be enhanced through continuous educational processes that recognize not only the existence of the Convention but also its beneficial contribution to conservation through sustainable trade management.
Efforts are necessary, both at a national and international level, to provide accurate information about the aims and function of the Convention. Educational materials, written in simple language appropriate to local usage, would highlight the Convention's positive achievements to the conservation of fauna and flora.
Involvement of local communities, NGO's, relevant trade associations, the scientific community and civic society is essential to heighten an understanding of the Convention. The dissemination of correct information will equally assist the effective implementation of the Convention.
Special attention also needs to be provided to the public perception that wildlife starts and ends with fauna, thereby overlooking the CITES issues relating to flora.
To strengthen communication and collaboration with national and international NGO's .
Collaboration with the NGOs in the design of a re-evaluation campaign regarding the meaning of CITES Appendix II for consumers
Expand mailing list of CITES-News to more NGOs
Check participants lists (COP, other plants meetings)
Circulate information on CITES meetings to NGOs
To strengthen alliance with relevant local communities, consumer groups, and traders.
Promotion of the development of campaigns for the diffusion of information addressed specifically to each of these areas
Promotion of research and development projects with local communities, businesspeople and business organisations
To promote greater awareness by and co-operation with the scientific community.
To identify more precisely contacts in the scientific community
Publicise CITES at scientific meetings, put leaflet in conference brochures, etc
To stimulate production and dissemination of informative materials to a broad public at a local, national, and regional level by using culturally relevant examples.
To improve communication and collaboration with the media.
To strengthen knowledge, promote awareness and facilitate enforcement of flora issues in CITES.
Goal 5: INCREASE CO-OPERATION AND CONCLUDE STRATEGIC ALLIANCES WITH INTERNATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS
The Convention states that the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shall provide a Secretariat. Therefore, the maintenance of an optimal working relationship with UNEP is critical for the proper administration of the Convention. Additionally, the Governing Council of UNEP at its 20th session (Nairobi, 1999) has noted the importance of promoting inter-linkages among multilateral environmental conventions and international processes in an effort to better focus international policy-making. It calls upon Parties to give due consideration to ways and means to strengthen coherent inter-linkages among relevant conventions. Numerous linkages also exist between the aims of CITES and those of other multilateral environmental agreements. Specifically, the missions of CBD and CITES are closely related, thus necessitating a high degree of co-operation and synergy. Co-operation and co-ordination with species management conventions and agreements are equally important.
CITES implementation and enforcement depends to a large degree on efficient border, trade and sales controls. The involvement of WCO and Interpol in this respect is crucial. A number of international organisations such as IUCN and WCMC have a wealth of scientific and technical information at their disposal and continue to increase this knowledge through research programmes, as well as the update and maintenance of extensive databases. Again close co-operation with those organisations is essential for an efficient distribution of responsibilities. Finally, as CITES mainly achieves its conservation objectives through trade measures, it is important to ensure the recognition, acceptance and compatibility of such measures with WTO and GATT.
To ensure an optimal working relationship with UNEP, as well as close co-ordination and synergy with the CBD and other relevant multilateral environmental agreements.
Parties to ensure liaison between CBD national focal points and CITES
These linkages also to be pursued at regional level
Pursue closer links with UNEP regional offices
Pursue closer links with FAO
To ensure close co-operation and co-ordination with conventions and agreements in the areas of species management and with associations such as IATA.
Promotion of the understanding of the related conventions and of existing associations, as well as their decisions
Consideration of the decisions made by other conventions and related associations when studying the proposals, as well as consideration of the criteria they used to reach these decisions
Comparative analysis of the criteria used by other conventions and related associations when classifying the status of conservation of each species
To ensure greater co-ordination of scientific and technical programmes and, where appropriate, more efficient distribution of responsibilities with relevant technical partners such as IUCN, WCMC, TRAFFIC and others.
To ensure continuing recognition and acceptance of CITES measures by GATT/WTO and to ensure the "mutual supportiveness" of the decision-making processes between these bodies.
Goal 6: PROGRESS TOWARD FULL GLOBAL MEMBERSHIP
In order for the Convention to achieve its mission, as many countries as possible that are engaged in trade of wild animals and plants should become Parties. Although membership has grown steadily to more than 140 Parties, there are still countries that have not yet become CITIES Party members.
The 1983 Gaborone amendment to Article XXI of the Convention envisions accession to the Convention of regional economic integration organizations to which Parties have transferred competence in areas of CITES implementation. To bring such organizations within the Convention, ratification of the amendment should progress and eligible organizations encouraged to join.
To secure at least 20 more Parties to the Convention by 2005 with a special focus on range countries of species subject to significant trade and important consumer countries of wild plants and animals, as well as countries located in regions with relatively low representation.
Identify the important priority countries for CITES trade
• Range States of traded species
• Key transit countries
(use WCMC trade report and other source to identify them)
To encourage ratification of the 1983 Amendment to Article XXI of the Convention and the subsequent accession by eligible regional economic integration organizations.
Goal 7: PROVIDE THE CONVENTION WITH AN IMPROVED AND SECURE FINANCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE BASIS
Successful implementation and enforcement of the Convention requires an appropriate level of funding, as well as a strong and professional Convention Secretariat. In addition to adequate support at the national level, there is continuing financial need to meet the requirements of operational effectiveness of the Convention, as well as the platform for international co-ordination and co-operation it is required to provide. Present funding barely covers the Convention's primary expenditures. Programme expenditure on capacity building, scientific research and other projects in support of the aims of the Convention largely depend on voluntary contributions by donors. This financial support is welcome, but if CITES is to continue to play a major role in species conservation, a more stable flow of financial resources is required.
To resolve the problems caused by late and inadequate contributions to the CITES Trust Fund.
To ensure that the decisions of the Conference of the Parties take full account of financial implications for the CITES Trust Fund.
Make attempt to cost all decisions, listing proposals and their impact
To seek funding from GEF and others for priority actions under the Convention.
Creation of a position within the Secretariat that is specialised in obtaining agreements for the acquisition of funding
To encourage additional voluntary contributions and to seek new ways of securing financial assistance from the donor community.
To encourage the development of new funding mechanisms.
To increase the level of realistic planning and forecasting, and to improve financial and implementation reporting.
To review and simplify, where possible, existing measures, procedures, mechanisms, and recommendations for the implementation of the Convention.
To ensure equity of the three working languages.
Delivering the Strategic Plan Through the Action Plan
This Strategic Plan presents a cogent overview of the specific aims of the Convention through 2005. It outlines 7 specific goals to meet the Convention's mission, and identifies 41 specific objectives to be achieved to meet those goals. Once adopted, this broad framework is designed to provide a unified focus to the Parties in their implementation of the Convention, and as guidance to the Conference of the Parties and the Secretariat.
To effectively implement the Strategic Plan, the detailed Action Points under the objectives must be further developed. As part of the Strategic Planning process, the Secretariat has been tasked with this further development. The tables with Action Points will present a matrix of action items by responsible entities to indicate what must be done to achieve each objective. They will also serve as a basis for evaluating progress toward, and reporting results in achieving Strategic Plan goals.
Ultimate achievement of the goals of the Convention will depend upon the successful delivery of the Strategic Plan through Action Points. It should be recognized that for the Strategic Planning process to successfully contribute to the achievement of the Convention, that process must be able to respond to the ever changing world. The Strategic Plan is not a static document. Therefore, the Convention must continue to evaluate progress and modify the Strategic Plan over time to adjust to change.
Glossary of Terms
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Food and Agricultural Organization
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
International Air Transport Association
International Criminal Police Organization: Interpol
World Conservation Union
United Nations Environment Programme
World Conservation Monitoring Centre
World Customs Organization
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