Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)

Establishing a Long Term System
for Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)

Annex 2: Data requirements

Population numbers and trends

It will be necessary to have reliable and repeated updates. This information should be collected and analysed in accordance with criteria developed by AfESG and AsESG. Any population numbers to be used in such an analysis must be collected within carefully defined areas that should, wherever possible, be identical to the areas in which mortality data are collected. Due to the possible long-term effects of poaching on elephant population dynamics, data on population age and sex structure should also be collected. This is especially true for Asian elephants since only males carry ivory.

Mortality rates

Reliable measures of elephant mortality from illegal killing can only be derived if there is some measure of the effort put into searching for elephant carcasses. This can be accomplished using standardised measures of carcasses found per unit of searching time, carcasses per live elephant or carcasses per unit area. To the extent possible, the search rate should represent an adequate coverage of the area and not be comprised of repeated and saturated searching of the same area.

There are four broad categories of data collection on elephant mortality:

  • carcass counts or ratios from aerial surveys
  • carcass counts from ground surveys corrected for effort
  • total number of elephant carcasses reported and
  • proxy data.

While the first two categories can, in principle, provide unbiased estimates, the latter two cannot and, therefore, must be considered qualitative but admissible information. Proxy data are indirect measures of illegal hunting that can act as surrogates for undetected carcasses in an area.

Carcass counts from aerial surveys

Techniques for deriving carcass ratios from aerial surveys are well established. However, the skill and training level of observers and the type of survey may affect reliable sighting of elephant carcasses from the air. As a result, carcass ratios can only be reliably used for comparison within and between sites if the methodology remains constant. In addition, because of the relatively low detection rate of carcasses from the air, this method is only likely to pick up very substantial changes in rates of illegal killing. Likewise, the technique cannot be used in forested areas, where data on illegal killing are most deficient. It may be possible to monitor individual forest clearings, where poaching incidents seem to concentrate, from the air in a systematic manner but these techniques have yet to be developed.

Carcass counts from ground surveys

The most useful and unbiased estimates of elephant mortality have come from a small number of detailed, long-term studies relying on detection of elephant carcasses by foot patrols. Provided patrols do not return to areas already covered over a short-time scale (i.e. double counting), then there should be a linear relationship between the number of carcasses reported and the true number of carcasses in the area. However, in order to use these carcass counts in an analysis they must be corrected for the effort put into searching for them. The most meaningful measure of may be obtained by measuring the number of carcasses per distance covered by patrols.

Other methods may be used as less direct measures of the same thing. These include: the number of individuals involved in searching per unit area; the expenditure per unit area or the effective time spent patrolling per unit area or an accurately defined measure of the time spent on intelligence investigations leading to the sighting, or interception of carcasses within a given site.

Concern has been expressed about the effectiveness of these techniques in forest conditions. While carcasses in savannahs may be detected from distances of over a kilometre on the ground, detection distances in many forested areas are less than 50m. Thus, with a similar carcass density, one would get much lower carcass counts in forests compared to savannas. Therefore, in order to get sufficient data, forest patrols would need to cover long distances to sample large enough areas. While forest monitoring programmes may adopt reconnaissance surveys, rather than detailed transect surveys, to more efficiently and effectively search the area, there may be more benefit to tracking population trends (i.e. changes in changes in indices of numbers of live animals) rather than carcass numbers.

Total number of carcasses/incidents reported

Most reporting on elephant mortality at both national and site level currently consists of a rough compilation of illegal killing incidents uncorrected for search or detection effort. Such information is difficult to analyse and may result in misleading or incorrect interpretation. For example, a breakdown in law enforcement (i.e. searching effort on the ground) may lead to an increase in illegal killing levels but a reduction in detection and reporting or, conversely, an increase in law enforcement and detection efficiency may lead to an apparent, but false, increase in measures of illegal killing. Incident reporting at a national level is dependent on good communication between staff of the national wildlife authority at local and national levels, as well as with other law-enforcement agencies. A clearly defined scheme to validate and rank such data by quality and reliability will need to be developed if it is to be used in any meaningful assessment of illegal killing trends.

Measures of search and deterrent effort

Several studies have demonstrated that one of the most important factors determining levels of illegal killing is the amount of effort devoted to law enforcement. This effort can be measured either in terms of staffing levels and/or budgets.

Staffing levels

Measures of staffing levels must be site-specific and, to the extent possible, directly related to the area where elephant population numbers and elephant mortality rates are also being measured over time. Although some staff involved in law enforcement may be stationed permanently outside the area in question, these should be excluded since it would be too complicated to assess the proportion of their time spent in a particular area or to apportion it in any meaningful way. Instead, there should be a yes/no category for presence of a centrally located, national-level specialised wildlife law enforcement unit (e.g. a strike force, special operations branch or anti-poaching unit) and/or a specialised wildlife intelligence unit.

1. Total personnel numbers

Total staff should include the entire staff of the government wildlife management authority based within and working at the site.

2. Total search and deterrent (law-enforcement) personnel numbers

For the purpose of determining the number of individuals actually on-the-ground who could be directly or indirectly performing a search and/or deterrent function in a specific site location, it is necessary to include several categories of government and non-government personnel.

 

i)

Government field staff

   

Government field staff include: specialist anti-poaching personnel, armed game scouts/rangers and officers who may take part in interceptions, unarmed staff (including scouts, drivers and government research staff) who patrol and may contribute to detection and deterrence, and intelligence staff (including underground agents and informants). Staff excluded form the field category include: direct support staff such as mechanics and radio operators, and indirect support staff such as clerks, cleaners, secretaries, gate-keepers and casual labourers.

 

ii)

Non-government field staff

   

Non-government field staff include: community game guards, field-based conservation NGO staff, independent researchers and field-based employees working within hunting concessions (including hunters, scouts, trackers, gun-bearers and drivers).

Budget

1 National level

Budget information requested at the national level would be in two categories:

 

i)

Total recurrent costs for the primary governmental conservation agency. In most cases this would be the national wildlife management authority. This budget may include donor funding that passes through the conservation agency, though this should be specified.

 

ii)

Other sources of government agency funding contributing to national conservation efforts. This may have to be estimated where another agency, such as police, army, or forest department has a specific, field-based conservation programme with law-enforcement implications. Donor contributions to recurrent budgets would also be included here but should be specified.

2 Site-specific level

Budget information needed at a site-specific level, on an annual basis, would include the following total recurrent expenditure for the site in question, total salary costs for total personnel, total salary costs for search and deterrent personnel, number of functioning (roadworthy) vehicles, bonuses and incentives (e.g. for capture of illegal hunters, recovery of ivory), and law-enforcement expenditure, excluding bonuses and incentives.

The salary costs should be calculated for all government field staff listed above. Recurrent costs for law enforcement expenditure at a site level should include field allowances, housing allowances, personal equipment (e.g. uniforms, tents, sleeping bags), funds for vehicles/aircraft and running costs for vehicles/aircraft. While actual expenditure budget information is preferred, if it is not available, allocation budgets may have to be used.

External factors

While difficult to quantify, it is clear that there are many external factors operating on the African and Asian continents that may have a direct impact on the illegal killing of elephants. Therefore, there must be some attempt to measure these factors and to integrate them into any assessment of causality of trends in illegal killing or changes in these trends. These factors can become quantifiable variables by establishing relative scales of measurement or simple presence/absence records for a specific site. These external factors may include, but are not limited to:

1 Civil strife

The presence or recent cessation of civil strife near or in site or in a neighbouring country is inevitably linked to a rise in general lawlessness. This may be accompanied by an increase in the availability of arms and ammunition or the establishment of large numbers of refugees within or near the site accompanied by a significant rise in the illegal use of the resources within. Elephants are particularly susceptible to illegal hunting under such conditions.

2 Increasing levels of human activity

Development activities, such as large-scale timber extraction or the construction of roads and dams, are often accompanied by increased human settlement by both nationals and foreign individuals employed by or associated with these activities. Increases in human population densities at or near the site may increase the potential for and rate of illegal off-take of elephants within the site.

3 Effectiveness of law enforcement effort and the judiciary

In countries where law enforcement and the judiciary are weak, the chances of detection and capture as well as the likelihood and severity of punishment if apprehended are generally low. In such countries, there may be a greater degree of lawlessness and this may be associated with many illegal activities, including the killing of elephants for their ivory.

4 Levels of other criminal activity

It is believe that illegal ivory changes hands in much the same way as other contraband commodities. Therefore, the presence of individuals dealing in other contraband commodities near the site could stimulate illegal killing in several ways. First, the existence of an easy trade route already established for other commodities makes ivory trafficking relatively easy and, second, the consequences of a lull in the trade of other contraband commodities could result in an increased pressure for ivory.

5 Spread of poaching

Heavy illegal killing taking place in neighbouring areas or countries may provide an early warning sign within the site in question. Historically, elephant killing has spread from one area to the next as elephant populations are depleted by illegal off-take.

6 Proximity to international boundaries

Sites located immediately adjacent to international boundaries are at greater risk to illegal incursions of all sorts, including elephant hunting. Such sites may be particularly prone to cross-border hunting where individuals strike within the site and then retreat across international boundaries making it difficult for wildlife management authorities or police to pursue.

7 Extent of community involvement in conservation

One potentially positive external factor is the relative involvement of local communities in conservation efforts relating to the site. As beneficiaries of revenues or other benefits derived from the site and active participants in community conservation initiatives, local communities may act as a powerful deterrent to illegal activities (including illegal elephant hunting).

Qualitative or proxy data

Even where carcasses are not directly counted, there may be other qualitative sources of information which indicate a change in rates of illegal killing. These may include but are not limited to:

  • changes in the profile of illegal hunters (e.g. use of automatic weapons vs. home-made weapons, or a change from local illegal hunters to ones from other countries)
  • numbers of poaching camps found within the site
  • behaviour of elephants within the site (e.g. changes in their distribution patterns from the norm or obvious changes in their response to human proximity), or
  • intelligence reports regarding the arrival of known criminals, inquiries in the local communities or market places about the availability of ivory or reports of planned poaching raids within the site.
Draft standard data collection form and completion instructions

A draft of the standardised data collection form, together with notes for completion, is given on the following pages.

 

 

Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants
Elephant Mortality Site Data

Data Collection Form

Section A: General information

1. Name and address of respondent ___________________________________

 

(i) ___________________________________

 

(ii) ___________________________________

 

(iii) ___________________________________

 

(iv) ___________________________________

 

(v) ___________________________________

2. Reporting period covered (dd/mm/yy) start ___/___/___ end ___/___/___

3. Location of site

 

_________________________________________________________

 

_________________________________________________________

4. Geographical co-ordinates

a) Reference point: ________________________________________
b) Longitude: ________ Latitude: ________

5. Boundaries: Reference point: ____________________________________

  1. Longitude: ________ Latitude: ________
  2. Reference point: ____________________________________
  3. Longitude: ________ Latitude: ________
  4. Reference point: ____________________________________
  5. Longitude: ________ Latitude: ________
  6. Reference point: ____________________________________
  7. Longitude: ________ Latitude: ________

6. Please continue on a separate sheet if necessary and possible.
Please attach a map of the site, with the boundary line clearly marked.

7. Size of area ____________km2

8. Land use within and adjacent to the site. Rank in order of predominance.

Land use type

Within site

Adjacent to site

Protected area

   

CBNRM

   

Extensive pastoralism

   

Extensive subsistence agriculture

   

Intensive pastoralism

   

Intensive agriculture

   

Settled area

   

Section B: Population numbers and trends

1. Is the site for which mortality data being reported the same as an input zone for the African elephant database?

ð yes

ð no

If no, fill in attached AED form.


Section C: Method of collection of mortality information

1. What are the main ways that dead elephants are located? Tick one or more of the boxes.


a)

During aerial surveys.

ð Go to Section D

b)

During regular, routine foot patrols.

ð Go to section E.

c)

During opportunistic observations by foot, aircraft, or vehicle, from reports by members of the public/staff or tourists, or some combination of these techniques.

ð Go to section F.

Section D: Carcass ratios from aerial surveys

If the aerial survey, is a total count, then go to 1, if a sample count, then go to 2.

1. Total count

   

Starting date of survey (dd/mm/yy)?

___/___/___

   

Area covered

__________km2

   

Total hours flown

_________

   

Total number of carcasses observed:

_________

   

Number in age categories:

 
   

i)

fresh

_________

   

ii)

recent

_________

   

iii)

old

_________

   

iv)

very old

_________

   

Total number of live elephants observed

_________

If there was more than one total count conducted during the reporting period, please report the same data as in D.1 above on a separate sheet(s) and attach to this form

2. Sample count

  1. Starting date of survey (dd/mm/yy) ___/___/___
  2. Area covered __________km2
  3. Transect sampling technique ð systematic ð random
  4. Total length of transects _________
  5. Average transect width _________
    1. Calculation method: ð Jolly I ð Jolly II ð other: specify ___________

      ________+/- _________(95% confidence limits, if available)

    2. Estimated total number of carcasses

      ________+/- _________(95% confidence limits)

    3. Estimated number of fresh and recent carcasses.

      ________+/- _________(95% confidence limits)

    4. Estimated number of live elephants.
  6. Estimates of numbers: Note - Please supply raw data in addition to numbers provided below.

If there was more than one sample count conducted during the reporting period, please report the same data as in D.1 above on a separate sheet(s) and attach to this form

 

Section E: Carcass counts from regular ground patrols

1.

a)

Total number of carcasses recorded in reporting period

 

_______

 

b)

Number in age categories:

   
   

i) fresh

 

_______

   

ii) recent

 

_______

   

iii) old

 

_______

   

iv) very old

 

_______

 

c)

Cause of death: total number

poached

_______

     

natural causes

_______

     

unknown

_______

 

d)

Number

from which tusks have been hacked

_______

     

from which tusks have been pulled

_______

     

found with tusks intact

_______

2.

Measures of effort put into patrolling

   

Fill in one or both of these measures.

 

a)

Total number of effective patrol days

 

_______ days

 

b)

Total distance covered by patrols

 

_______ km

 

c)

Area covered by patrols

 

_______ km2

 

 

Section F: Opportunistic reports of mortality

1. Total number of recent dead elephants recorded

_______

2. Number from which tusks have been hacked

_______

3. Number from which tusks have been pulled

_______

4. Number found with tusks intact

_______

5. Sources of data and their trends:  

Data source (units of effort)

Change since last reporting period

(+, =, - )

a. Opportunistic ground patrols (effective days)

 

b. Opportunistic air patrols (patrol hours)

 

c. Vehicle patrols (total kilometres patrolled)

 

d. Staff on general duties (no. of active staff - see H.1.a)

 

e. Local residents (incentives for conservation)

 

f. Tourists, safari hunters (number)

 

g. Researchers (number)

 

h. Intelligence operations (number)

 

6. Who reports the most carcasses? Score on a scale of 1-8.

 
a) Opportunistic ground patrols

______

b) Air patrols

______

c) Vehicle patrols

______

d) Staff carrying out general duties

______

e) Local residents

______

f) Tourists, safari hunters

______

g) Researchers

______

h) Intelligence operations

______

 

Section G: Qualitative or proxy data

Indicate if any of the following have occurred in the site during the current reporting period, and give details.

1. Changes in the profile of illegal hunters

Information on illegal killers

Yes/no

Change since last reporting period

(+, =, - )

a. number of illegal killers (if no, go to G.2)

   

b. use of automatic weapons

   

c. use of home-made weapons

   

d. number of local people killing illegally

   

e. number of citizens from outside site killing illegally

   

f. number of foreigners from killing illegally

   

g. number of poaching camps

   

2. Changes in elephant behaviour

Information on elephant behaviour

Yes/no

Change since last reporting period

(+, =, - )

a. change in distribution pattern (if no, go to b)

   

i. dispersed across site

   

ii. concentrated in few areas within site

   

b. change in group sizes (if no, go to c)

   

i. forming small herds

   

ii. forming large herds

   

c. change in response to people (if no go to 3.)

   

i. nervous when hearing voices

   

ii. nervous when hearing vehicles

   

3. Changes in frequency of intelligence reports

Information in intelligence reports on:

Yes/no

Change since last reporting period

(+, =, - )

a. arrivals of known criminals within or near the site

   

b. ivory available in local villages of markets

   

c. planned raids within the site

   

 

Section H: Staffing levels
List numbers of staff under the following headings

 
 

Personnel type

Number

1. Wildlife authority staff

 

a) Armed game scouts/rangers

 

b) Unarmed game scouts/rangers involved in patrolling

 

c) Other field staff

 

d) strike force/special operation unit operating full- or part-time

 

e) specialist intelligence officers operating full- or part-time

 

2. Community game guards

 

3. Field-based conservation NGO staff

 

4. Researchers

 

5. Field based employees in hunting concessions

 

Total personnel numbers

 

Section I: Budgets

1. Total recurrent expenditure for site

US$__________

2. Total field running costs

US$__________

3. Salary costs for site  

Personnel type

Number

1. Wildlife authority staff

 

a) Armed game scouts/rangers

 

b) Unarmed game scouts/rangers involved in patrolling

 

c) Other field staff

 

d) strike force/special operation unit operating full- or part-time

 

e) specialist intelligence officers operating full- or part-time

2. Community game guards

3. Field-based conservation NGO staff

4. Researchers

5. Field based employees in hunting concessions

Total personnel numbers

 

1. Total amount paid in bonuses

US$__________

2. What are bonuses paid for?

US$__________

Reason for bonus payments

Yes/no

Extra efforts made

 

Successful captures, leading to prosecution, of poachers

 
   

 

Section J: Vehicles

1. Number of functioning vehicles

Type of vehicle

Number

Small 4WD, e.g. Land Rover or Cruiser

 

Supply lorries

 

Troop carriers

 
   
1. Number of operational aircraft _____________ 2. Number of operational patrol boats _____________

Section K: External factors

1. Activities

For each category, indicate whether the activity has occurred or was present during the reporting period (yes/no), at what level it occurs (high/medium/low) and whether it has changed since the previous reporting period (+,=,-).

Activity

Occurred?

Level

Change

a) Civil strife

     

b) Development activities, such as logging, dam building

     

c) Civil law enforcement & judiciary

     

d) Illegal activities other than elephant poaching:

     
 

i. Poaching of other species

     
 

ii. Illegal drug trade

     
 

iii. Illegal arms trade

     
 

iv. Gem-stone smuggling

     

e) Elephant poaching in neighbouring areas/countries

     

f) Community involvement in conservation

     

 

Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants

Elephant Mortality Site Data

Data Collection Form Completion Notes

Please fill in a separate form for each reporting period for which you have information on a particular site.

Section A: General Information about the site

 

1. Name and address. Details of the individual responsible for collating and ensuring the validity of the data provided on the form.

 

2. A "reporting period" is defined as the period of time over which the information provided is considered valid. This would normally be a calendar year, but could be either a shorter or longer period. You should specify the start and end dates for the period, in the format dd/mm/yy. E.g. 01/01/96 for 1 January 1996.

 

3. Location of site: Give the nationally/ internationally recognised name for the site, including a description of its geographical location within the country(ies). For example, Parc W in northern Benin/ eastern Burkina Faso/ south-western Niger.

 

4. Geographical co-ordinates.

    a) Reference point. The predominant administrative centre or the approximate geographical centre of the site, identified as such. For example: Chobe NP headquarters, administrative centre.
    b) Longitude and latitude of reference point. Record in degrees and decimal minutes (to one decimal place?). For example: 25° 9.4' E, 17° 48.6'S
 

5. Boundaries. If possible, describe by giving reference points as landmarks (giving geographical co-ordinates as in point A.4.b) the outer limits of the site over which the information has been collected and can be considered valid. Please attach a map of the site, showing clearly the boundary line, and indicating the scale.

 

6. Size of site. Area in km2 of the site included within the boundaries noted in point A.5.

 

7. Predominant land use within and adjacent to the site. Designation as:

   
  • protected area - national park, game reserve, private or local government/ parastatal reserve
   
  • community-based natural resource management (CBNRM)
   
  • extensive subsistence pastoralism, with scattered settlements
   
  • extensive subsistence agriculture, with scattered settlements
   
  • intensive pastoralism, commercial ranching with fencing (including intensive game farming)
   
  • intensive agriculture
   
  • settled area

 

Section B: Population numbers and trends.

This is intended to provide data on elephant population increases or decreases. Such data are normally provided by AfESG members to the Africa Elephant Database and updated on a regular basis. If no data for the site were submitted to the last AED update, or if new data have become available in the interim, please submit it now using the attached AED form.


Section C: Method(s) of collection of mortality information

 

1.

This section is intended to note the method(s) of collecting mortality information in the site. If mortality is recorded in more than one way, for example if there is information from aerial surveys, but also all dead elephants found on the ground are recorded, fill in two or more of sections D to F.

 
 

Section D: Carcass ratios from aerial surveys

 

1.

Total counts

 

a)

Starting date of survey. This is intended to give an idea of the time of year of the survey. The date information is given in the standard notation (dd/mm/yy) as in A.2 above.

 

b)

Area covered. The total area on the ground for which an estimate is attempted by the survey.

 

c)

Total hours flown. The sum of durations of all the individual flights in the survey.

 

d)

Total number of carcasses observed. These should be recorded in the age categories described below, with the following criteria:

   

i)

fresh: still has flesh beneath the skin, giving the body a rounded appearance, vultures are probably present, and a liquid pool of body fluids is still moist on the ground.

   

ii)

recent (<1 year old): presence of an open rot patch around the body, skin usually present, bones relatively unscattered

   

iii)

old (>1 year old):clean white bones (some skin may be present in arid areas), no rot patch or vegetation is regrowing

   

iv)

very old:bones cracking and turning grey, skeletons difficult to see from the air

 

e)

Total number of live eleaphants observed. The sum of all elephants counted during individual flights in the survey, ensuring there is no double-counting. Note reporting in Section B above.

If there was more than one total count conducted during the reporting period, please report the same data as in all points of D.1 above on a separate sheet(s) and attach to this form

2.

Sample counts

 

a)

same comment as in D.1.a above applies

 

b)

same comment as in D.1.b above applies

 

c)

Please indicate whether the transect sampling technique is systematic - transects evenly spaced along the baseline -- or random-- transects evenly spaced along the baseline.

 

d)

Total length of transects. The sum of all individual transects flown, reported in km.

 

e)

Average width of transects. The overall average of the estimated width of all individual transects, in metres.

 

f)

Estimates of the population numbers of carcasses and live elephants:

Please supply raw data in addition to the summary data provided. Raw data should be in the form of separate counts for each transect, or whatever sampling unit is appropriate. The reason for this is that the most likely method of global analysis will consist of multi-level modelling and for this, data must be available at each level of sampling.

   

i)

Calculation method. Report the method used to derive population estimates. If the method is other than Jolly Method I or II, please indicate, giving details on a separate sheet if necessary.

   

ii)

Total number of carcasses. Report the estimate calculated for carcasses of all categories.

   

iii)

Fresh and recent carcasses. Report the estimate calculated for carcasses of "fresh" and "recent" categories, as defined in D.1.d above.

   

iv)

Live elephants. Report the estimate for total live elephants. Note Section B above.

If there was more than one sample count conducted during the reporting period, please report the same data as in D.1 above on a separate sheet(s) and attach to this form

 
 

Section E: Carcass counts from ground patrols

 

Report only carcasses found during the course of patrols

1.

Measures of numbers of dead elephants

 

a)

Total number of dead elephants. (only record elephants believed to have died within one year of the date of finding.

 

b)

Criteria: fresh or recent, as in D.1.d above.

 

c)

Cause of death. Total numbers known or suspected with good reason to have been poached or died natural causes, or those for which no cause of death can be determined.

 

d)

Evidence of poaching from the fate of the ivory carried. Report number from which tusks have been hacked, pulled or left intact.

2.

 
 

a)

Effective patrol days. This is the summation over the reporting period of the total number of days, i.e. more than six hours/day, that each ground patrol has spent in the field, on foot away from vehicles. Thus it does not include time spent at a base camp, away from base camp but not on active patrol or on placement to the patrol site.

 

b)

Total distance covered by patrols. This is the summation over the reporting period of the total distance marched by each patrol group during effective patrol days. Distance marched can be measured by plotting patrol routes on maps and measuring.

 

c)

Area covered by patrols. This is the geographical area over which the responsible authority considers is covered effectively by patrols. The area should be covered as evenly and regularly as possible: repeated visits to the same small areas will not be comparable to more evenly timed patrols over a broader area.


Section H: Staffing levels

 

2. Wildlife Authority staff, c) Other field staff. This may include researchers, drivers, wardens etc., but should exclude support staff such as radio operators, mechanics, clerks, cleaners, secretaries, gate keepers and casual labourers.

6. Field based employees in hunting concessions. This may include hunters, scouts, trackers, gun-bearers and drivers.

 

Section I: Budgets

 

4.

Total recurrent expenditure for area. This includes all salaries, operating costs for vehicles, camps etc, and replacement costs for vehicles and other equipment.

5.

Total field running costs. This should include field allowances, housing allowances, personal equipment (e.g. uniforms, tents, sleeping bags), purchase of vehicles/aircraft, and running costs for vehicles/aircraft.

Annex 3 Methods of counting elephants
Annex 1 Relevant Decisions and Resolutions from CITES COP 10