ANNEX 3

ANNEX 1: What Constitutes Wildlife Protection?

A variety of approaches have been utilized to promote and ensure protection of wildlife and protected areas in Africa. Although the deployment of protection effort (PE) in African forest areas varies have often differed from strategies used in more open environments, broadly similar approaches have been used across the continent. These include:

TABLE.1

Protection Method

Examples

Protected Area Establishment

Gazetted National Park or Reserve

Deployment of Law Enforcement

Anti-poaching patrols including intelligence gathering

Partnerships with State Agencies

Mixed patrols (police and guards)

Community Partnerships

Community forest management, CAMPFIRE programs

Private Sector Partnerships

Collaboration with safari hunting and forestry companies

Education and Public Awareness

Environmental newspapers, radio etc.,

The choice and utility of different approaches depends upon a variety of factors including:

  • Funding levels
  • Access to the protected area.
  • Cooperation of local authorities, including police and military in support of anti-poaching activities.
  • Legal status of wildlife populations
  • Human and use of wildlife areas.
  • Activity of industrial-scale resource extraction (e.g. commercial forestry and mining).
  • Orientation Capacity and of poachers (e.g. local subsistence hunters versus well armed mobile ivory poachers).
  • Demand for wildlife products and availability of markets (e.g. price of ivory)
  • Habitat (closed forest versus open savanna)
  • Indirect conservation efforts, including support of local communities and private companies.

 

 

ANNEX 2. Principles of Measuring Effort and Results on Mobile Guard Patrols.

Introduction

We found in the previous session that in order to be able to detect changes in incidences of illegal activities, we need to measure the "catches" of illegal activity, or results of anti-poaching, in relation to the "effort" expended in searching for these.

But we also need easy ways of doing this, that can be compared between sites, because the guards are not researchers out to follow a strictly defined sampling method. They are primarily doing a job of surveillance and law enforcement

Measurements of EFFORT

There are several ways to measure effort.

  1. The MIKE Pilot project is using two direct measures of law enforcement effort:

    1. Patrol power in the field , and

  2. Financial input can be used as a broad indirect indicator between sites and will be part of the baseline information established for each site.
  3. Coverage of the area.

 

Indirect measures

1. Financial input

Money is an indirect measure of patrolling effort. In general, the more money spent on anti-poaching , the more effective anti-poaching efforts are. Obviously the money has to be spent correctly and on the right things! Rangers need to be equipped well, paid regularly and there need to be vehicles available to transport them to and from their patrols. At a national level, you can take the overall budget for a wildlife department, look at the total size of all the protected areas they are responsible for, and work out how many US$ per km 2 they spend each year. This allows a very rough comparison between countries.

The same can be done for each protected area in a country. In Zambia in the 1980s it was found that if more than US$215 was spent per km 2 in a protected area then declines in elephant populations could be halted. If less than this was spent, anti-poaching effort was not so effective, elephant poaching continued and populations continued to decline.

This information will be recorded in the baseline data and annual expenditures on surveillance will be given in annual reports. However the MIKE pilot project is not putting emphasis on this, since money going to the field is not necessarily a guarantee of it being used on field surveillance, and there is likely to be a major discrepancy between the costs spent on surveillance of forest and savanna sites. The latter have more use for aircraft and vehicles, which increase costs, while the poaching pressures may also differ widely and be unrelated to financial criteria.

Direct Measures

  1. Patrol power in the field.

This was the most ubiquitous measure in the previous examples. Manpower can be measured as man.days in the field or as patrol.days. The former will only work if every single site had exactly the same number of men per patrol throughout the study, or if every man went separately Patrol days have been found to be a more realistic measure. Consider a deployment of 20 men and assume that the objective of your patrol is to find as much sign of illegal activity and deal with it as possible:.

  • If all 20 men go in one patrol of 15 days, they would equal a measure of 300 man days or 15 patrol days, but since they all cover the same ground they would not see twice as much as 10 men in a group.
  • 20 men divided into two patrols of 10 each for 15 days would also equal 300 man days but would equal 30 patrol days and since they covered twice the distance would have twice as much opportunity to find signs of illegal activity.

So patrol.days are being used as the most meaningful measure that can be compared over time and between sites

A patrol which spends one hour a day actively patrolling (that is, moving and searching) will not cover as much ground or detect as many poachers as one that spends eight hours a day actively patrolling. For this reason, we need some way of deciding what should be counted as an effective patrol day.

Because MIKE covers many different sites, many different forms of transport may be used. At some sites game scouts may patrol on foot, at others on horses, at others only in vehicles, at others in boats. In order to standardize, for MIKE’s purposes a patrol will be counted as an effective day if at least six hours are spent patrolling away from base.

Many foot patrols use vehicles to get to the start of their patrol route or are picked up in vehicles after their patrol. Therefore, for foot patrols days spent in vehicles getting to or from the patrol route (these are called placement days) should not be counted as effective patrol days.

  1. Coverage

Coverage is a measure of the area of the site that is searched by patrols. Coverage and patrol days are linked, as in the following example:

4 Sites have 40 men each to deploy for 10 days.

In Site 1 they all go in one patrol

400 man.days

10 patrol days

Coverage 40 km

 

 

 

In Site 2 the go in two patrols of 20 men each

400 man.days

20 patrol days

Coverage 80 km

 

 

 

 

In Site 3 they go in three patrols of
13 and 14 men

400 man days

30 patrol days

Coverage 120 km

 

 

In Site 4 they go in four patrols of
10 men each

 

400 man.days

40 patrol days

Coverage 160 km

 

 

 

 

 

We can see that man.days remains the same throughout. Patrol days and cover (assuming that all are using the same means of movement and therefore covering roughly the same distance) are directly related. If a group covers 160 km, one could reasonably assume that they have four times as much chance of finding signs of illegal activity than a group that covers 40 km.

Patrol days therefore form a widely useable measure of effort. But if all four patrols had covered the same sector their chances of finding different signs of illegal activity would not be four times greater. Look at the accompanying series of maps showing the distribution of poaching in Garamba National Park in the years 1993 to 1997. The indicators measured are occupied poaching camps and accrochages or armed contacts, as reported by guard patrols throughout the year. The threats come largely from across the border to the north, and the centre of protection effort is in the south. Clearly over the period in question there has been a southerly movement of poaching towards the highly vulnerable rhino sector. This illustrates the value of mapping the distribution of what is happening, as well as quantifying it. (Figs. maps 1-4)

As we saw in the last session maps of distributions of indicators would also be invalid unless patrol coverage is accumulated over a sufficient time period to allow for even coverage, or unless you clearly define the limits of your distribution map relative to cover. It is therefore important to measure cover as well. In addition, as we shall see later, sketch maps of patrol cover give a quick and easy guide to p.a. managers in planning the next patrol.

There are several ways to measure cover:

  • Plotting the track walked with a GPS
  • Marking it on a map and measuring it
  • Counting grid squares crossed
  • Measuring with a pedometer

Use of a GPS

This is the most accurate and in forest may often be the only way to know your position, but has several disadvantages:

  • Technical problems, It may stop working or get dropped in water or broken in a contact:
  • You may not have enough battery power to have it on all the time and may have to keep stopping and switching on.
  • It may not get satellites in forest
  • User error
  • Expensive & batteries may be unavailable locally
  • Time consuming. The job of a law enforcement patrol is law enforcement. No-one’s first thought in a shoot out is to switch on the GPS

So the forms include place for GPS recordings but also other back up recordings to give position.

Marking on a sketch map

An important tool that should be used in all anti-poaching patrols is a photocopied map of the site. Maps of MIKE sites should be simplified, but with sufficient features, such as drainage lines and tracks to allow patrols to locate the positions of indicators.

The patrol route and positions of night camps can be drawn onto the map and the positions of all indicators found can be marked on it.

As a measure of effort, the distance covered can be measured and the area searched is indicated in a way that is easily useable by the pa managers. It does not give the most precise measurement but assuming that the degree of error is the similar each time, it gives a good relative measure and is practical, immediate and not affected by technical problems.

Grid squares

A 5km by 5 km square grid should be superimposed on the map to aid in identifying the grid squares patrolled. This grid system should have letters up one side (south to north) and numbers along the bottom (west to east), so that grid squares can be referred to as, for example "A1" or "F27".

In practice it is extremely useful if this grid is made to tie in with the UTM grid system in your area, rather than starting at a line of latitude or longitude using the polar coordinate system (ºN and ºS). UTM = Universal Transverse Mercator projection, and is a way of superimposing a square grid on the Earth’s surface. Each unit of the UTM grid system corresponds to 1 metre on the ground, and we know 5 km = 5000 m. Thus if the south-westernmost point of your MIKE site has UTM coordinates 0245387 1303721 then your grid should start at 0245000 1300000, and move northwards and eastwards at intervals of 5000, so that the next grid square eastwards would start at 0245000 1305000 and the next grid square northwards at 0250000 1300000.

If the patrol route is drawn on a map with grid squares, the number of grid squares crossed or the distance per grid square can be used as a measure of effort. This also provides a simple raster type of analysis relating search effort to indicators found per grid square..

Indicators of illegal activities and results

As a measure of levels and distribution of illegal activity we are using standard indicators such as number of poachers arrested, numbers of poached elephants found and so on, that can be compared between sites. MIKE is complicated in this respect because it deals with a great many different sites, from National Parks to completely unprotected areas. What is illegal at one MIKE site may be perfectly legal at another. For example, honey collecting or wood cutting might be forbidden in MIKE site A, a National Park, but permitted in MIKE site B, a community conservation area.

The standard MIKE forms and the structure of the database recognize this problem, and so MIKE Site Officers are asked to define what measures of illegal activity they are recording at each site. However, most of the major illegal activities (poaching elephants, hunting with semi-automatic weapons etc.) will be illegal in all sites and these are the categories that the forms concentrate on. Questions on the MIKE report forms (Ground Patrol, Elephant Carcass, Monthly and Annual) are designed to collect information about levels of poaching in each MIKE site. Because the same questions are being asked in all sites, we should be able to compare the data collected from, for example Nigeria, with that from Zimbabwe.

There is also a division in indicators between Indicators of serious offences, particularly elephant related ones and minor offences, such as wood cutting that do not directly threaten elephants..

 

INDICATORS

RESULTS

Directly or certainly related to Illegal Elephant Killing

 

Elephant carcasses

Elephant poacher camps (Old/Recent/Occupied)

High calibre gunshots

Armed Groups seen

Armed contacts

Poachers arrested

Poachers killed or wounded

Weapons/ ammo. Recovered

Ivory/elephant meat seized

Indirectly por possibly linked to illegal elephant killng

Un armed groups seen

Fishermen

Wood cutting

Mining

Suspect footprints or wheel tracks in Nat. Park

Licenses checked

Illegal groups removed

Illicit Camps destroyed

Snares removed.

The full range of potential activities will be listed for the database, but for each site the relevant ones within each category can be defined in order to simplify the job of the guards and the Site Officers.

Why should MIKE collect all this patrolling effort and results data?

It may seem unnecessarily complicated to collect data from each ground patrol in each MIKE site. However, without this basic data on law enforcement effort, MIKE will not work.

In 1989 CITES placed the African elephant on Appendix I, banning trade in ivory and elephant products. Two separate studies, completed in 1992 and 1995, tried to assess whether the ban had worked. However, there was not enough data from elephant range states, particularly concerning levels of effort. It was not possible to provide any firm evidence that separated the effects of any increased law enforcement from the effects of the ban itself.

MIKE will solve this problem by collecting detailed information about levels of patrolling and enforcement effort at the same time as information on levels of poaching incidents and elephant populations.

Site Maps INSERT SKETCH

Scouts can use maps to draw on the route of the patrol and mark any incidents (for example discovery of poachers’ camps or elephant carcasses) using a simple code such as P for Poacher’s camp, E for elephant carcass and so on. From this sketch of the route the MIKE site officer can estimate the number of kilometers patrolled and the number of 5 km by 5 km grid squares visited during the course of each patrol.

ANNEX 3: Pilot Project LEM Training Course Outline

 

MIKE – PILOT PHASE, CENTRAL AFRICA
Lac Lobeke Cameroun, May 2000

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING TRAINING

COURSE PROGRAMME

1) GOAL of the course

  • To contribute to putting in place functional law enforcement and human-elephant conflict monitoring systems in all MIKE Pilot sites.

2) Specific OBJECTIVES of the course

  • To have trainees understand the Principles of Law Enforcement Monitoring (LEM) as these relate to Wildlife Protection in general, and MIKE in particular.
  • To have trainees understand the Principles of monitoring Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) and how these apply to MIKE.
  • To analyse case studies of different forms of wildlife protection in Central Africa in relation to analyses of protection effort, actions taken, results and effect.
  • To analyse case studies of human-elephant conflict and how these apply to MIKE.
  • To provide MIKE Field Officers with principles to allow them to train Protected Area staff in LEM and HEC monitoring.

By the end of the Course, trainees will be expected to be able to:

  1. Know the Principles of Law Enforcement monitoring, including measures of Protection Effort, and indicators of Results.
  2. Supervise and verify, in collaboration with Protected Area Managers, the collection of standardised information by guard patrols, including patrol de-briefing, patrol mapping and patrol report filing.
  3. Know how to measure Intelligence Gathering (Surveillance) Effort and Results.
  4. Know how to monitor Human-Elephant Conflict.
  5. Produce standardised field forms for their specific site conditions based on models provided by the course.
  6. Train patrol leaders and other relevant personnel in information recording.
  7. Consolidate and synthesise patrol information.
  8. Conduct preliminary analyses of Protection Effort and Results.

3) COURSE STRUCTURE

The field course will include:

  1. Presentation of basic LEM and HEC theory and concepts, and applications to MIKE field programs.
  2. Presentation of Case Studies of Protected Area patrol data and Human Elephant conflict monitoring from Central African Protected Areas by trainees followed by group analysis.
  3. Review and discussion of MIKE field protocols.
  4. Field exercise in Lac Lobeke and vicinity. Trainees accompany patrols and HEC monitoring teams on field patrols.
  5. Final exercise: Preparation of field forms and protocols by trainees for their specific site, applying course principles.
  6. Evaluation of trainee projects.

All trainees who are members of project teams in the field are requested to bring pertinent patrol data, field and site maps, elephant conflict eports and other information to use in case study analyses.

Trainees not based in field sites will be requested to present an overview of their national elephant and anti-poaching programs for case study analysis.

Following the training session, it is planned that participants will attend the MINEF sponsored Quadri-national Elephant Strategy Workshop in Yokadouma (May 22-25).

 

4) COURSE CONTENT

  1. Introduction

Introduce MIKE and CITES, and relate the MIKE objectives to LEM.

2) Principles I: Wildlife Protection and Law Enforcement

Examples of types of protection effort and factors relating to this: Forest versus savannah approaches; protected areas versus non-protected areas; Community conservation and Private Sector approaches. How is intelligence or surveillance used. Legal aspects and prosecutions, enforcement and reality of protected area laws, national laws and adherence to CITES. This aspect leads on to the ETIS trade monitoring programme, which will be mentioned.

3) Principles II Monitoring of Protection Effort

What is Protection Effort, including patrols and information gathering (Surveillance). How can Protection Effort be measured. Why an ability to measure and monitor law enforcement effort and results is important for MIKE in particular and elephant conservation in general. Use examples from different Law Enforcement Monitoring programmes.

4) Case reports: and discussion. What are different Protected Areas doing for Wildlife Protection and Human-Elephant Conflict? How can this be monitored? How is information collected, organised and utilised? How have strategies developed in relation to threats, needs and constraints? How have protection effort and results been measured? What indicators of illegal activity have been used? What has been the effect of Surveillance and Law Enforcement on rates of illegal activity? What have been the effects of HEC ?

  1.  
  2. Principles III. MIKE Law Enforcement Monitoring (LEM).
  • Search Effort
  • Indicators found
  • Action taken
  • Results

The basic principles of these parameters are the same for each site, but specifics will vary. It is proposed first to present a clear picture of what is meant by the parameters, then for each trainee to consider and define the specifics for their sites.

  1. MIKE forms & protocols

A) LEM Forms and Protocols

  • Patrol forms and carcass form
  • Intelligence information form
  • Principles of patrol debriefing.

B) HEC Forms and Protocols

  • Village interviews and Human-Elephant Conflict form.
  1. Information Consolidation and Reporting
  • Monthly and Annual report forms

Basic standardised forms will be presented, and will be fitted to specific site needs and conditions.

  1. Trainees will practice using the forms in a field situation, training field staff (patrol leaders) in their use, debriefing a patrol and consolidating and reporting the data.

  2. Field Exercise
  3. Analysis and reporting

How are data used, analysed and reported?

  • Basic data consolidation
  • Reporting to site manager, (Garamba model)
  • Contribution to the site data base
  • Patrol mapping (GIS maps will be mentioned but no GIS training here).
  • Reporting to national Elephant Officers and analytical centre
  • Modelling elephant distributions and numbers to protection effort. (Introduction to Jachmann’s and Bell’s models).
  1. Training

Guidelines for training of guard patrol leaders by elephant officers.

Develop simple instructions applicable to their site

Develop quality controls applicable to their site.

5) TRAINERS

The course will be taught by Dr. Kes Smith and Dr. John Hart.

Dr Kes Smith has almost 20 years experience in the Garamba National Park, RD Congo. With her husband, Fraser Smith, she has co-ordinated the effort to protect park’s unique mega-fauna, including the only population of Northern White Rhino, and one of the most significant populations of elephants in eastern DR Congo. Dr. smith has been a pioneer in developing Law Enforcement Monitoring protocols and applying these to management of Protected Areas.

Dr. John Hart is Co-ordinator for the Pilot MIKE.

6) COURSE PROGRAMME

Day

Session

Subject Unit

Material

Trainers

1

Ap-midi

Introduction to the Course

Introduction to course
Daily schedule
Rules and Etiquette

John

1

Ap-midi

CITES and MIKE

CITES presentation

Kes

2

Matin

Principles I: Protection Effort and Law Enforcement

Examples of the types of protection, constraints., Protected vs Non-protected areas, Community conservation, education etc.

John

2

Matin

Principles II. Monitoring Protection Effort and Results.

Anti-Poaching introduction, Why and how to monitor it.

Kes

2

Matin & Ap-midi

Case reports and discussion

Garamba National Park

Okapi

SE Cameroun

Tri-National/ZP region

Odzala

National antipoaching programs

Trainees

3

Matin

Case reports conclusion

 

Kes & John

 

Ap-midi

Principles III. MIKE LEM

Principles defined, development of key indicator

Kes & John

4

Matin

MIKE LEM Field Forms and Protocols

Go over data forms and protocols, patrol debriefing

Kes & John

 

Matin

MIKE HEC Monitoring

Field Forms and Protocols

John

 

Ap-midi

MIKE Intelligence Monitoring

Go over data forms and protocols

Kes & John

 

Ap-midi

MIKE Reporting

Monthly and Annual site reports

Kes & John

5

Matin

Patrol leader training

Principles and examples of how to train patrol secretaries

Kes

5

Matin &
Ap-midi

Analysis & Reporting-

Patrol data, maps, data consolidation & site reporting

Kes & John

 

Ap-midi

Field Exercise: Introduction Planning

Objectives, reporting, functioning in the field

John & Kes

6-7

 

Field Exercise & Report

Trainees accompany local patrols or HEC monitoring, produce a field report

Trainees

8

Ap-midi

Final Exercise: Preparation of Site Forms

Trainees Prepare LEM and HEC forms for their site

Trainees

9

Matin

Final Exercise continued

Trainees present their projects

Trainees

 

Ap-Midi

To be determined

   

10

Matin

Course Evaluation

 

All

 

Ap-Midi

Closing and Departure

   

ANNEX 4. MONITORING ANTI-POACHING ACTIVITIES: Field Protocols and Data Collection Forms.

The Following protocols are included in this Annex:

1) FIELD PATROL AUTHORIZATION

2) DAILY PATROL REPORT

3) ELEPHANT CARCASS and IVORY REPORT

4) DEBRIEFING AND FIELD PATROL SUMMARY

5) DAILY CHECKPOINT

6) INTELLIGENCE MONITORING

 

MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

1) FIELD PATROL AUTHORIZATION

 

INSTRUCTIONS

The purpose of the Patrol Authorization Form is to maintains a record of manpower and patrol time The form is also designed to serve as an official authorization (Ordre de Mission) for the patrol, by the Warden directing the anti-poaching effort as his directive .

 

The form is to be completed by the Warden or whoever is authorizing the patrol and signed by him. This can be done in collaboration with the MIKE Site Officer (MSO) for any sections that are unclear. At present this form is headed with the MIKE Pilot Project title as a proposed form in this context. If it is adopted by the Park Warden, he can, if he wishes change the heading of the patrol authorization form to be consistent with the authority of the site.

 

An example of the Field Patrol Authorization Form is provided at the end of this section. Detailed instructions on completing the form follow.

PATROL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: Give the patrol identification reference number. This is a unique reference number for the patrol and will be used in all cross-referencing of information. This may include the year, sector code or Site code and a number referring to the number of patrols since the start of the year, eg 2000/RFO/South/05

SITE: Enter MIKE site name

SECTOR: Relevant Sectors for each site are defined in the baseline description and map for that site. Write the main sector or region to be patrolled, eg Southern.

PATROL TYPE: Fill in a code for the type of patrol

Patrol Type

Abbreviation

Surveillance

SUR

Reconnaissance

REC

Monitoring

MON

Research

RES

Investigation

INV

Tourism

TOU

Maintenance/General duties

GEN

Aerial

AER

Other

OTHER (specify)

DATES: Provide the beginning and ending date of the patrol from the time of departure to return to base. Note this includes deployment time (see below). Provide as well a geographic location the beginning and end of the patrol.

PATROL TRANSPORT and DEPLOYMENT: Indicate what form of transport the patrol is using eg Foot / Vehicle, and if patrol deployment or placement is by another means, eg Foot patrol with Vehicle placement.

Transportation Type

Abbreviation

Foot

FOOT

Vehicle

VEH

Aircraft

AIR

Pirogue/boat (motorized)

PIR (M)

Pirogue/boat (non-motorized)

PIR (NM)

motorcycle

MOTO

Bicycle

BICYC

Domestic Elephant

ELE

Other (specify)

OTHER

Time Period: Time taken for placement at start and end of the foot patrol, if relevant. Provide this information upon the return of the patrol.

Distance Covered: Taken from vehicle odometer if a vehicle is used, or measured by MSO from a map, making use of the GPS waypoint at the start of the patrol. Provide this information upon the return of the patrol.

PATROL OBJECTIVES: Provide a brief description of the patrol objectives at the start of the mission. NOTE: These may be modified as a result of logistics or events during the course of the mission.

ITINERARY: Provide a written description of the planned itinerary. This should be accompanied by a map if possible. NOTE: The actual itinerary of the patrol may be modified during the course of the mission.

SIGNATURE and DATE: The Form should be signed and dated by the authority authorizing the patrol.

THE PATROL AUTHORIZATION FORM FOLLOWS

 

CITES / MIKE
Central African Pilot Project

Law Enforcement Monitoring
1) FIELD PATROL AUTHORIZATION

PATROL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: PATROL TYPE:

SITE: SECTOR:

 

Date Begin……. Date End……. Departure Point: End Point:

PATROL TRANSPORT:

DEPLOYMENT: Transportation Means: Time Period: Distance Covered:

 

NAME

FUNCTION

WEAPONS

AMMUNITION

Provided Returned

 

Patrol Leader

     
 

Patrol Secretary

     
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         

PATROL OBJECTIVES:

 

ITINERARY:

 

           
             
             
             
             
       

 

 

   

 

 

           
             

SIGNATURE:.................................................DATE.............................

MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

2) DAILY PATROL REPORT

 

INTRODUCTION

The daily patrol report consists of:

  1. Daily Field Map
  2. Daily Report Form.
  3. Supplementary Notes

Both the map and daily report form are to be completed by the Patrol Secretary in the field during the course of the mission.

Patrol secretaries in collaboration with MIKE officers should prepare field check sheets with information code and summary form instructions. These should be plasticized for use in the field.

A) DAILY FIELD MAP

The Daily Field Map is an essential document to accompany all Daily Field Reports. A copy of a map of the sector to be covered is thus essential on all patrols. This map should be covered by a grid square system and geo-referenced. The location of the patrol track and all observations will be mapped by line and point symbols, and by grid identification. Locations will be confirmed by GPS point as far as possible. Maps broken down into sections can be produced from the GIS database that is being established for each MIKE site. If patrol monitoring begins before these are available, produce a basic sketch map.

The Daily Field Map must show:

  1. The route covered by the Daily Patrol and
  2. All observations made during the Daily Patrol.

National Officers, in collaboration with PA managers and MSOs should prepare maps to be used by patrols. Maps should:

  • Be geo-referenced and show the grid system
  • Be of an appropriate scale (1:200,000 or 1:50,000), and show a scale bar.
  • Show main features using standardized symbols that are explained in a legend or map key.
  • Be prepared by Sector so as to be of a convenient size to carry in the field.
  • Should be carried in clear "zip-lock" plastic bags for protection.

Usually, a new map will be used by the patrol for each day. In other words, each Daily Patrol Report will be accompanied by its own map. A patrol secretary should have enough map copies to cover the expected duration of the patrol, plus additional extra copies.

Each daily field map should be identified by the Patrol Identification Number and the date of the daily patrol.

For each day, mark the route and all observations recorded on the Daily Report Form.on the map of the area. Use the Observation Reference Number (see below) to map locations of all observations.

It should be relatively easy for guards to locate themselves on the map in open savanna or semi wooded areas areas, but this may be more difficult in forest. If the guards themselves find it difficult, the map can be completed during de-briefing with the MSO, or from the GPS track if this is measured throughout. In addition, guards should be encouraged to mark their location at well know locations on the map with a corresponding reference in the Daily Patrol Report.

GPS COORDINATES AND WAYPOINTS A GPSreading for each observation and continual or frequent tracking of the route will give more accurate positioning, and is recommended. However it is essential to have back up field notes. It may not be possible to locate satellites in thick forest cover, batteries may run out during the patrol, mistakes may be made, the GPS may get dropped in a river or otherwise damaged. In addition, in times of stress, such as encouters with poachers, taking a GPS reading may not be first priority!

If a GPS is used, switched on all through the patrol, the route can be down-loaded on the return. If it is only turned on occasionally, it is suggested that this is done at the start ("Start") and end ("Stop") points of the day’s patrol (although the start point does not need to be recorded if it is in the same place as the end point of the night before), the approximate mid point or furthest point of a loop patrol, ("Mid") and at other convenient rest times ("Other"). A GPS position should also be recorded, on the observation forms, for all major observations, such as elephant carcasse, encounter with poachers, active elephant clearing, mining camp not previously recorded etc.

MAP GRID Patrol maps and basemaps of the site should be overlaid with a grid system. This is especially true in forest areas where exact location may be difficult to know and a GPS may not work because of heavy canopy cover. Grid size is most conveniently standardized to a 5 x 5 km UTM compatible grid, although in some very large areas 10x10 km is more practical and in small areas a 1 x 1 km or other scale could be used. In the absence of GPSs refined grid locations down to 100x100m. have been used successfully for recording observations in some areas eg. Garamba National Park.

It is also useful for purposes of clarity to add a letter label A,B,C etc to one side of the scale eg longitude to be sure whether the grid is read horizontal/vertical or vice versa. A grid square would then be referred to as B10 or M55 for example. If other standard grids, eg Latitude and Longitude are already in use, continue to use these, as results can ultimately be transferred to other geographic references.

If the GPS and mapping are working, it would not be necessary for the guards to fill in the grid reference of each position, and this could be done by the MSO during debriefing for the purpose of analysis. But if all other points of reference have failed, at least a position within a grid square should be possible for the guards to define.

FIGURE 1 Shows an example of a Daily Field Map that has been completed by a Patrol Secretary. (include Garamba map here).;

CYBERTRACKERS. For guard patrols using the Cybertracker, the track route will be produced by the cyber-unit. However, it is recommended that all patrol secretaries have the capacity to make field maps in case of malfunction of field equipment and other constraints (above). A separate training in Cyber tracker use is planned for selected sites.

B) DAILY PATROL REPORT

An example of the Daily Report Form is provided at the end of this section. The following provides instructions on filling in the form.

The Daily Report Form is divided into a top section that provides the identification number of the patrol and other basic information. The daily record of the patrol is written in the section below.

One copy of the Daily Patrol Report form is filled out for each day of the patrol. Each line of the table records one observation, which may be a regular recording of waypoint position or may be an observation of elephant sign, human impact or key information related to other species. Use additional sheets if the number of observations surpasses the number of lines on the form. Clearly indicate at the bottom of the form the page number and total number of pages for the day.

Instructions

PAGES: Give the number of the page and the total number of pages of the Report for the day. For example, a Daily Report that contains one page will be indicated as Page 1 of 1 Pages Total. The second page of a three page daily report will be recorded as Page 2 of 3 Pages Total.

PATROL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: Write the same number as is indicated on the Patrol Authorization Form for all Daily Patrol Report sheets. The Daily Field Map and Supplementary Notes should also have this number.

SITE and SECTOR: Provide the same information as contained on the Patrol Authorization Form.

DATE: Enter the date of the Daily Report.

START and END: Enter the location (GPS, Map location) and departure time the team leaves for the field for the day, and the location and time for the end of the patrol the same day

FIELD CONDITIONS: Provide any brief note concerning weather or other conditions that would affect the patrol for the day, eg "rain all morning", or

Instructions for each column of the main body of the Daily Patrol Report follow:

OBSERVATION REFERENCE: Every observation (line on the table) has a unique reference number that can be used to refer to Supplementary Notes (see below) and locations on the Daily Field Map.

TIME Record the time (in 24 hour clock eg 06:00, 16:00 etc.) for each observation. If a GPS is used but without continual tracking, record time and position several times on the route.

TRAIL TYPE Record the trail type that is being followed by the patrol type and from which observations are made. Note changes in trail type as an observation. For example three observation lines would be used to note the following patrol track information:. A patrol starting the day at 7:00 on footpath, 8:20 switching to an elephant boulevard, and 10: 30 traveling without trail on a compass bearing of 45 degrees.

Trail types include Footpath (F), Logging track (LT), Abandoned road (R) Transect (including logging prospection (T), Elephant boulevard (E), Animal trail (A), Water course, including river (W ), No trail (N) and Other trail type (O). Describe this latter in notes

POSITION

Two methods of locating an observation are to be recorded on the Daily Report: a GPS Waypoint and A Map Quadrat Location. In addition, each observation must be shown on the Daily Map referenced by its Observation Reference Number (see above). In addition, if the location has a specific name (village or bai) this should be given in the notes at the end of the column, or in the supplementary notes.

There are three reasons why each location is recorded by by multiple means:

  1. As back up to instrument failures or mistakes.
  2. To facilitate cross checking.
  3. As an easy and replicable means of analysis.

GPS Record the GPS coordinates or the waypoint number for each position on the track and each observation. If the patrol has time and training to do so, they could also write the full coordinates at the time of the observation. If not this can be completed by the MSO from the recorded waypoint number.

Grid This is a record of the 5 x 5 km grid square in which the observation is located, according to the accompanying map. The grid has letters along one side and numbers the other, so that a grid position for an observation will read for example B25 or S55 etc (See FIGURE 1, above).

INDICATORS OF ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES

Indicators of human impact, and what is legal and illegal, may differ for different sites and sectors of sites. Patrol secretaries should record all illegal activites and any activites whose legal status is not certain to them (eg fishing camps in some cases).

Primary. Primary indicators of illegal activity include evidence of a serious illegal activity that threatens elephants or focal species, and that are directly linked or have a high probability of being directly linked to illegal elephant killing. Examples include: poached elephant carcass, a group of armed poachers in a protected area, a camp with smoking racks of elephant meat etc.

Secondary. Secondary indicators include evidence of illegal activities that are not directly linked to illegal elephant killing with certainty, though they indicate general levels of illegal activity, and may at times be linked to elephant killing. Examples include poaching camps where direct evidence of elephant was not found, duiker snare lines, human trails (and machete cuts) in protected areas.

Carcass. Carcass finds may or may not be an indicator of illegal activity. It is important to discover cause of mortality if possible. For each carcass indicate species and source of mortality: Poached (P), Died Naturally (N) or the cause of death not determined (U). For elephant carcasses fill out the Carcass Form (introduced below). For an elephant carcass, give the reference number of the carcass form in the notes column. Use Supplementary Notes to provide further information on Focal Species and Other carcass finds. Evidence used to determine cause of mortality should be described in the notes.

Age. The age of indicator observed will vary depending upon its type. For camps, snares, indicate whether these are Active (A) or Occupied (O), Recently abandoned, used within the last month (R ); Old, last use more than one month (O), or Unknown (U). Refer to the Carcass Form for definition of carcass age classes. For other sign, including human trails, ammunition etc. indicate age as Recent (R ), or Old (O).

Quantity. The quantity is the number of components of a unit group observation. For example animals in a group, poachers in a group, huts in a camp.

A hierarchical classification is a useful way to approach the full range of possible indicators and related age classifications that might be found over the MIKE pilot sites. TABLE 1 lists indicators proposed by the participants of the Lac Lobeke Training and Review Workshop. For each site the main indicators will be chosen and written descriptions provided.

Table 1: Indicators of Illegal Activity for Central African Pilot Sites. Note: Classification of poached carcasses is treated under Carcass field form and protocol.

INDICATOR

TYPE

AGE

QUANTITY

Poached carcass

  • See Carcass Form

See Carcass Form

 

Human encounters

  • Illegal Activity (describe)
  • Armed / unarmed
  • Other (Ethnic group etc.)
 

Number people

Human access

  • footpath
  • river crossing foot
  • River access and use (pirogue docking, etc.)

- Recent (R)

- Old (O)

High frequency use

Low frequency
use

Human passage / activity

  • human footprints
  • machete cut
  • other sign of human activity (describe activity)
  • vehicle tracks

- Recent (R)

- Old (O)

Number of individuals (if possible)

Human settlements

  • permanent settlement
  • semi-permanent camp
  • temporary camp

- Occupied(O)

- Recent (R )

- Abandoned(A)

Number
dwellings

Gunshots

  • Automatic
  • Heavy calibre
  • light calibre
 

Single

Few (2-5)

Many (>5)

Spent Ammunition

  • automatic
  • heavy calibre
  • light calibre/ Shotgun
 

Single

Few (2-5)

Many (>5)

Traps and snares

  • wire
  • pitfall
  • fish trap
  • other traps

- Active (A)

- Recently Abandoned (R)

- Abandoned (Old)

Single

Few (2-5)

Many (>5)

Meat

  • Species
  • Sale / Subsistence use

- Fresh

- Smoked / dried

Number pieces

Number animals

Agriculture

  • field
  • tree plantation

- Active (A)

- Recently Abandoned (R)

- Abandoned (Old)

 

Wood extraction

  • commercial logging
  • wood cutting

- Active (A)

- Recently Abandoned (R)

- Abandoned (Old)

 

Non-timber extraction

  • honey gathering
  • bark stripping
  • rubber tapping
  • recent
  • old
 

Mining

  • commercial mining
  • open pan mining
  • Prospection (exploration)

- Active

- Old

 

Elephant

  • Wounded animal
  • Orphaned animal
 

Number seen

Other

  • Describe
   

ACTION TAKEN Note what Action was taken based on the observation of the Indicator of illegal Activity. These include:

  • No action taken (None)
  • Destruction (D).
  • Recovery (R )
  • Seizure (S).
  • Escape, including following attempted arrest (E).
  • Arrest (A).
  • Interrogate (I)
  • Other , describe (O)

Note that some indicators can result in multiple Actions. For example: An encounter with poachers can include seizures, arrests and recoveries. Provide further detail on significant Actions Taken (in particular encounters with poachers) in Supplementary Notes.

ELEPHANT AND FOCAL SPECIES OBSERVATIONS

Faunal observations made on guard patrols. Guard patrols offer the opportunity to produce information on the distribution and status of elephants and other key fauna. Although this information will not be collected with a controlled sampling design, such as the Recce-Transects, and can not be analyzed in the same way, it is nevertheless of significant value, in particular to MIKE and Protected Area Managers.

The primary use of this data by MIKE will be:

  • To assist in mapping major elephant habitat features elephant distributions on site base maps
  • To aid in verification and independent checking of patrol results with MIKE research recce transect results.

The reason for including observations relating to other species is two fold:

  • They may be the main prey species for poaching and changes in the level or distribution of this may indicate potential threats to elephants, and
  • Key species may be important to the broader objectives of the law enforcement surveillance at a particular site.

Information on fauna to be recorded by guards on the Daily Patrol Report will include direct encounters, information on major elephant or key fauna habitat features, and observations of significant, recent indirect sign. All observations will be mapped.

It is not reasonable to expect guards on surveillance patrols to count all animals seen in savanna, or all signs seen in forest. Therefore the baseline data for each site should include a definition of key species to be included for any one site in this column and three letters codes for them.

Elephant.

For all major observations provide information on age of sign, frequency of use, numbers of animals, as appropriate. Major observations include:

  • Seen or heard (S or H)
  • Boulevard (B)
  • Elephant clearing (edo, baie, wallow, etc.) (Baie)
  • Other (O)

Focal Species.

Guards should also collect information on other major large fauna, in particular apes and large ungulates and large predators. Identify the species eg: Gorilla (GOR), Leopard (LEO), etc. and observation. The following observations are to be recorded:

Seen or heard (Vu or Entendu)

Fresh dung (CR)

Nest (Nid)

Fresh tracks or feeding sign (TR)

C) SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

Patrol secretaries should provide additional notes for significant observations, or for information not included on the Daily Report Form or Daily Field Map. These notes should be written on the back of the Daily Patrol Report and/or on additional sheets. Each note should be labeled with the Observation Reference Number (see below). Additional pages of Supplementary Notes should also be labeled with the Patrol Identification Number.

PAGE ___ OF ____ PAGES TOTAL

CITES / MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

2) DAILY PATROL REPORT

 

PATROL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER:____________________ SITE: _____________________ SECTOR: ___________________________

DATE: _____________ START: Location: __________________ Time: ____________. END: Location: __________________ Time: ____________.

FIELD CONDITIONS:

PATROL TYPE ____________ MAPS USED: ___________ INDICATE YOUR ROUTE AND OBSERVATIONS ON THE MAP:


Obs Ref



Time


Trail
Type


POSITION

INDICATORS
Illegal Activities


ACTION TAKEN


OBSERVATIONS


Note

GPS

Quadrat

Primary

Secondary

Carcass

Age

Qty

Elephant

Focal Species

Age

Qty

1

                             

2

                             

3

                             

4

                             

5

                             

6

                             

7

                             

8

                             

9

                             

10

                             

11

                             

12

                             

13

                             

14

                             

15

                             

MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

3) ELEPHANT CARCASS and IVORY REPORT

INTRODUCTION

The discovery of a poached elephant carcass represents direct evidence of illegal elephant killing. Thus it is critical to investigate all carcass finds to determine cause of death. All elephant carcasses discovered, whether they died by poaching or other causes are reported first on the Daily Field Patrol Report, with further detail provided on the Elephant Carcass Report Form. In addition, seized or recovered ivory is also an indication of an elephant death and is treated on the same form.

 

This form should be completed for any elephant carcass or skeleton or scattered bones that have not been recorded previously, or any ivory found or seized. The Instructions for filling out the form are presented here, with an example of the Report Form provided at the end of this section.

INSTRUCTIONS

The top of the form contains references to the Patrol including Identification Number, and the Site and Sector of the patrol.

DATE: Record the date the carcass was discovered or the ivory recovered or seized.

LOCATION: Note the Location of the carcass or ivory siezure or recovery.

GPS. Provide a GPS location if possible

Name: Give a map quadrat and named geographic location if possible.

Site Description: Describe the local habitat and site features of the carcass find. Note especially if the carcass was located in a focal elephant site such as a baie. Describe where the location of an ivory seizure or recovery.

CARCASS

Description Fill in the table with one of the choices for each category:

Age of Carcass. Use one of the following categories:

  • Fresh (less than 1weeks in forest, 1 week in savannah). Flesh present beneath skin, giving rounded appearance, presence or recent indication of scavengers, body fluids still moist.
  • Recent(more than 1 weeks, to several months). Rot patch present around body, where plants have been killed. Skin often present and bones not usually very scattered, still oiley.
  • OldNo rot patch disappeared or grown over. Bones with no oil present in them.
  • Very Old Bones cracking and grey looking, o over grown with lichen. Usually scattered..

Age animal at death. Use one of the following relative age classes. In addition, information on molar erruption may be taken (see Annex).

  • Infant. Very small, no tusks
  • Subadult. Small, tusks may have been present
  • Adult. Large animal
  • Unknown. Age determination not possible.

Sex. Note sex of animal for fresh carcasses, when this is possible. Note "Unknown" if sex can not be determined.

CAUSE OF DEATH. Check one of the appropriate boxes: Poached, Natural death or Unknown cause of death. For poached animals, indicate the means used to kill the animal. Only classify cause of death if you are certain. Otherwise mark unknown.

Evidence of cause of death. In this column give the evidence used to determine the cause of death. Examples include:" Bullet hole and spent shell found", "Tusks hacked out", "Animal trapped in snare", "The elephant had no sign of injury and the tusks were present", "The teeth were very worn and on the last molar, indicating that it was very old", "Scattered bones only – could not tell".

Products taken: Check the appropriate box. The switch between killing elephants only for ivory, and the killing of elephants for meat as well as ivory is a key indicator of causes of poaching pressure.. While poachers are taking meat, they can only kill a few elephants before stopping to smoke the meat. If poachers are only going for ivory, many more elephants can be killed in a short space of time and detection of poachers and additional poaching sign such as camps is more difficult.

NOTES: Provide additional information on the carcass, and the site it was found. Note in particular if other carcasses were found at the same site, whether there was additional sign of poaching or human impact. In the site area.

IVORY

Absent Check this box for carcasses that have no ivory.

Recovered. Check this box for ivory recovered from a carcass or otherwise found. (see notes below).

Seized: Check this box for illegal ivory seized from poachers or other parties.

Minimum number of animals.. Indicate the minimum number of animals represented by the ivory reported on the form.

Notes: Provide additional information about where and how the ivory was found and collected. Note if it was recovered from a carcass or if it was ivory already removed from the animal, and collected from a dealer or poacher

MEASUREMENTS

This section records the information that is probably recorded in the ivory / trophy store when the ivory is handed in. It will also be furnished to the ETIS records through the MIKE system.

Stock Reference Number. This is the reference number written onto the tusk when it is handed in. This can be done in indelible felt pen. It is useful to have a note of the site and country as well as a sequential reference number, since ivory ultimately gets centralized nationally and may be traded internationally. It also helps to note on each tusk if it is one of a pair ½ or a single tusk 1/1. A detailed record of all stocked ivory should be maintained and a copy retained at site as well as sent with each load to centralized or national store..

Weight: recorded in kg.

Length: Length is measured in cm along the outer curve of the tusk.

Circumference at base: This is the circumference in cm around the base of the tusk, not the lip position.

Pair or single: Mark the appropriate column: If it is a single tusk and if it is a pair mark the reference number of its pair. This helps in the calculation of the number of dead elephants represented by a given number of tusks over a time period.

 

CITES / MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

3) ELEPHANT CARCASS and IVORY REPORT

 

 

 

PATROL IDENTIFICATION No _________________ SITE:_________________ SECTOR: __________________

DATE OF DISCOVERY: _____________________

LOCATION DISCOVERY: Coordinates: _____________ Nom:______________________________

(GPS, Quadrille etc)

Site Description:______________________________________________

(p.e.:Baie, saline, savane herbeuse, cach J dans une maison)

Carcass

DESCRIPTION

   

CAUSE OF DEATH

 

Carcass Present: (yes, no)

   

Poached:

Gunshot

other means:

Unknown means

Tusks present (yes, no )

   

Natural death

 
     

Cause of death unknown

 

Age of Carcass

(Fresh, Recent, Old, Very old)

   

Evidence for cause of death:

Products taken:

Ivory and Meat

Ivory Only

Age of Animal at Death

(Infant, subadult, adult, unknown)

   

Notes

Sex

(Male, Female, Unknown)

   

Ivory

Absent

 

Number Recovered

 

Number
Seized

 

Total Minimum number of animals represented:

Other Notes:

IVORY MEASURES

Stock Ref No

Weight (kg)

Length (Long curve)

Circumference at base (cm)

One of a pair

Single

           
           
           
           

MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

4) DEBRIEFING AND FIELD PATROL SUMMARY

 

INTRODUCTION

This section covers the first synthesis of data following the patrol This includes:

  1. Patrol Debriefing
  2. Patrol Summary Form

The Patrol summary reported here only summarizes information related to illegal elephant killing. This includes primary indicators of illegal activity, and actions related to elephant poaching. These are the data needed for MIKE analyses.

Although this summary is specifically limited to MIKE requirements, The Patrol Summary form presented here can easily be modified to extract and synthesize information on more general illegal activities.

A) PATROL DEBRIEFING

PRINCIPLES:

The objectives of patrol debriefing are:

  1. Verification. To ensure that the information on the Daily Report Form is correct and correctly recorded
  2. Amplification. To add additional information for selected observations based on interviews with patrol secretaries and other patrol members.
  3. Communication. To help transmit information from the patrol to the protected area managers.
  4. Training. To improve accurate reporting of key information on the Patrol Report Forms.

The debriefing is an information gathering process. It is essential to maintain this objective, even if patrol results do not conform with expectations. Disciplinary actions "causeries morales", etc. should not be included in the debriefing. Encourage guards to answer "Do not Know" for information that they failed to record, or are not certain of.

It is also very important to keep the focus on observations made and not interpretations of observations. This last point is very critical. If guards begin to offer interpretations, the Debriefer should ask questions to clarify the observations that led to the interpretatins. to these. This will return the focus to objectives of the debriefing process. Speculations and guessing about information should be recognized and not be accepted.

PROCEDURES

Materials needed. The following materials are required for a patrol debriefing:

  1. Completed Patrol Authorization Form
  2.  

  3. Completed Daily Field Patrol Report Supplementary Notes.
  4. Completed Field Maps made during the patrol.
  5. Several copies of unmarked field maps covering the patrol sector and to be filled in during the debriefing, and for making additional notes.
  6. A large map of the Site (if possible).
  7. Paper, pens and pencils.

Debriefing Process The following guidelines are recommended:

  • The MIKE field leader and/ or a designated Protected Areas higher level staff person should conduct the debriefing. It is essential that the person conducting the debriefing has a full knowledge of the MIKE objectives and protocols for Law Enforcement Monitoring.
  • The debriefing should occur as soon after return of the patrol as possible. Usually next morning, and before guards have other assignments.
  • In addition to the Person conducting the Debriefing, the Patrol Secretary, the Patrol Leader and at least one additional member of the patrol team should be present.
  • The debriefing should happen in a quiet place, without other distractions. Consider providing coffee or tea.
  • The person making the debriefing should be responsible for taking notes.

The following process is recommended procedures for individuals leading the debriefing:

  1. Go over original field notes for each day. Have Patrol Secretary read notes aloud. Ask him to provide additional observations and additions verbally. Seek confirmation and input from additional guard members present. It will be important to gain essential information to classify observed indicators as primary or secondary. The debriefer should then fill in the summary for the day on the Summary Form. Read it back to the secretary to be sure that the observations are correctly reported.
  2. The Patrol Debriefer should write down additional observations provided by the Patrol Secretary verbally during the debriefing. Pay particular attention to differences between what was recorded on the patrol sheets and what is reported in the debriefing. If there are problems with the notes as they were written, make the corrections on the field forms using another colored pen (do not erase any original notes, even if mistaken) and explain what you are doing why you are doing it.
  3. Go over field maps with the Patrol Secretary and others. Verify the locations of each position recorded on the map. Go over recorded GPS Waypoints with the Patrol Secretary. Mark identifiable Waypoints on the field map. If there are long distances between points on the field, make inquiries as to the likely route followed by the patrol. Note this on the field map with a colored pencil line that is different from the color used on the original field notes.
  4. Provide amplified notes, Way Point information and map locations for observations of activities linked to elephant poaching, other illegal activities, and for significant elephant observations.
  5. Request recommendations for follow-up activities based on comments from patrol leader or secretary. This can sometimes lead to additional critical information.
  6. Provide a summary of the patrol results, as obtained through the debriefing process, and annex one copy with the patrol report to be provided by the Patrol Secretary to the PA manager.
  7. File a final copy of the Summary Patrol Form patrol and debriefing report for the Protected Area Warden and MIKE National Officer.

 

EXERCISES:

Have trainees provide examples of written patrol reports, if available, and consider how effective debriefing could serve to amplify a patrol report. Using actual—or pre-prepared practice patrol forms, have trainees conduct a group debriefing with the trainer serving as Patrol Secretary. Go though all the steps of a complete debriefing. Discuss options and choices in cases of difficult interpretation. Emphasize how questionable or incomplete patrol information should be dealt with by Field Officers.

 

INSTRUCTIONS

An example of the Field Patrol Summary Form is provided at the end of this section. Instructions for filling out the form follow.

The details at the top of this page, including the Patrol Identification Number are the same as on Authorization and Daily Report. Be sure to include the total number of pages in the Summary in the upper right corner. Additional information includes:

PATROL DEBRIEFER and DATE

pages 1 and 2. In addition, the name of the de-briefing officer and the date of de-briefing are added.

WEATHER OR OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING PATROL OPERATIONS:

Mm

1) MAN POWER AND RESOURCE SUMMARY

Personnel. Under Number fill in the number of armed and unarmed guards on the patrol and the total..

Guard x Days For each line multiply the number of guards of each category by the number of days they patrolled and fill in the number.

Total Patrol Days is the number of days of the patrol and is the principle measure of patrol effort.

GPS File Reference This refers to the name given to the vector file of the track and/or the waypoints, if it is down-loaded as a file.

Number of Field Maps: Fill in the reference to the total number of field maps used to show the route followed and the indicators found.

Transportation Used: In alternate cells write the transport type (eg vehicle, pirogue) followed by the total distance covered by this method (in km), foot (km) etc.

2) DAILY SUMMARY

DATE. Record the date for each day the patrol was out, starting with the first day of active patrols. Do not include days spent in travel or waiting for deployment, unless these included some patrol activities.

 

TRAVEL MEANS. Indicate the transportation used for the field patrol during the day, usually "foot."

HOURS. Record the time during which the field patrol team was effectively deployed in the field in accordance with the objectives stated by the wildlife officer directing the anti-poaching activity.

KILOMETERS. Record the distance covered by the field patrol team during each day in kilometers. Estimate this from the Daily Field Map.

QUADRATS COVERED. Record the number of grid squares covered by the patrol during the day.

ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES: PRIMARY INDICATORS. Record here the number of observations for each of the listed Primary Illegal Activities recorded during each patrol day. Use the debriefing process to determine which indicators reported on the Daily Field Patrol Report are primary indicators (eg directly or highly probably associated with illegal elephant killing). Use the "Other" column to add and describe other Primary Indicators not listed.

ACTIONS AND RESULTS Record here the number of observations of patrol actions related to illegal elephant killing. Use the "Other" column to add and describe Patrol Actions not listed.

ELEPHANT OBSERVATIONS. Record here the number of elephant related observations of each type listed in the columns. Record and describe any other significant observations not included in the list. Reports of recent elephant activity should be noted.

TOTALS Provide sum totals for each of the columns covering all days of the patrol.

 

PAGE ___ OF ____ PAGES TOTAL

CITES / MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

4) FIELD PATROL SUMMARY AND DEBRIEFING REPORT

SITE: SECTOR: PATROL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: _____________

PATROL TYPE: DATE: Beginning: End:

PATROL LEADER: ………………… PATROL SECRETARY :……………PATROL DEBRIEFER: DATE DEBRIEFING:

WEATHER OR OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING PATROL OPERATIONS:

1) MANPOWER and RESOURCE SUMMARY

Personnel

Number

Guard x Days

 

Total Patrol days

 

Armed

     

GPS File reference

 

UnArmed

     

Number of Field Maps used

 

TOTAL

     

Transportation used

     

2) DAILY SUMMARY



Date


Travel
Means



Hours



km


Quadrats
covered

Illegal Activites
Primary Indicators

Actions and Results
--------------------------------------------------------------

Elephant Observations
----------------------------------------------

Elephant
carcasses

Poacher Encounter

Poacher
camps

Other
(describe)

None

Arrest

Seizure

Recovery

Destroy

Other
(describe)

Encounter

Boulevard

Bai / Edo saline

Other
sign

                                     
                                     
                                     
                                     
                                     
                                     
                                     

TOTALS

                                 

MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

5) CHECK POINT CONTROL

INTRODUCTION

Check points or barriers represent fixed control points which permit guards to control passing traffic (foot, vehicle, etc). Some check points simply count passing traffic. Other checkpoints make inquiries and still others actively search for illegal wildlife products. For any given check point, a variety of control measures can be used.

The unit measure of protection effort for a check point is the "check-point day". This is equivalent to one check point being manned for an entire day, (or most of a day). Further refinement of this unit can be made if:

The daily period check points are operational varies markedly, with some days only partially operational.

The quality of check point control varies markedly during the day, or between successive days (some days with active searches of passing traffic, some days with traffic passage only recorded).

DATA COLLECTION FORM

The data collection form is attached, and is mostly self explanatory. Particular attention should be taken to fill out the general operation of the check point in the introductory sections:

 

CITES / MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

 

5) DAILY CHECK POINT REPORT

FICHE CONTROLE CHECK POINT

N° de la Form ___/___ Page __ of __ (total)

Location of Checkpoint

Secteur:

Poste:

Date:

 

Responsible Officer::

Number of guards

   

Starting Time:

Ending Time: TOTAL HOURS:

Operations:

Type of traffic controlled (Circle all appropriate) : motor Vehicles, bicycle foot, pirogue, other (describe).

Principle activities (Order, 1,2,3, in descending order based on frequency of practice

Count traffic

Stop traffic and make inquires

Actively search passing traffic

Describe any operational protocols; (eg count every passing vehicle, stop and question every third, stop and search every fifth)

 

 

Notes and Observations.

   

Characteristics of passing traffic

Seizure

 

           

Wildlife Product Confiscations

Time

Type of conveyance

License or permit number

Société

Activity conducted:
count, question, search / seize

Species

Type of material

Minimum number of individual animals

Observation

1

                 

2

                 

3

                 

4

                 

5

                 

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15

                 

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19

                 

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MIKE

Central African Pilot Project

LAW ENFORCEMENT MONITORING

6) INTELLIGENCE MONITORING

The Intelligence Monitoring Form, attached, provides a means to measure effort and resources expended on intelligence gathering by protected areas staff, as this relates to illegal elephant activity. The Intelligence Monitoring Form summarizes this information on a regular basis. (The form is prepared for a monthly reporting schedule, but could be modified to a trimestrial schedule as well).

UNIT INTELLIGENCE EFFORT

For the purposes of this survey, each report received will constitute a unit intelligence effort. Each unit intelligence effort will be recorded as a single line entry on the reporting form. When multiple information sources or repeated information from the same source relate to a single identified issue or incident, each reporting occasion or source will be evaluated as a separate unit effort. In cases where multiple unit efforts inform the same incident, provide an additional note identifying and linking these on the form.

ANALYSIS

Each site will be categorized as to the importance of intelligence for anti-poaching and law enforcement, and effort and resources devoted to it. The relationship between intelligence and law enforcement in general and indicators of illegal activity for the site will be established. This will be related to information on elephant distributions, and relative abundance. Changes in effort devoted to intelligence over time will be followed. Information sources will be mapped, as possible, and used to establish indices of anti-poaching effort across MIKE sites.

INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL

Provide the information requested concerning the period covered by the form (this should be a calendar month), date the form was completed, the individual completing the form (usually MIKE National Officer) and the source of information (usually Protected Area Warden and or staff). Note total number of pages in the report. Give the MIKE site location and its protected status, as appropriate. Each form is given a unique identification number to aid in proper information retrieval and avoid later confusion and misclassification. If no intelligence information is acquired at the site, indicate this on the top line of the form, as indicated, and then no additional information should be provided on the table.

INFORMANT CODE

To insure discretion and confidentiality, each informant or intelligence source should have a unique code name/number. The actual identification of the source need not be known for purposes of reporting. The purpose of the code is to distinguish both the number of reports as well as the number of different informants in measuring intelligence effort. Intelligence information acquired by MIKE staff during the course of MIKE surveys should be reported to warden and indicated on the table under the code designation, MIKE.

DATE

Provide the date information was provided or intelligence report received.

DIRECT / INDIRECT

Note whether the intelligence received was direct, first hand information, or whether indirect and transmitted from another source.

LOCATION

Provide location of the habitation or base of operations of the informant at the time report received. If unknown, indicate this. Location information should provide recognized political/administrative information to permit mapping.

OCCUPATION:

Give the occupation of informant during the period report received. Occupation classes include:

U: Unknown

C: Civilian

A: Administrative Authority

M: Military personnel

P: Police

PA: Protected area staff

O: Other, including non-residents. Provide explanation in notes at the bottom of the form.

INITIATOR

Note who initiated contact:

I: Informant,

PA: Protected Area Staff member (usually during an interview)

M: Intermediary individual who introduces the informant to PA staff.

MOTIVATION

What motivated the informant to provide information: Include:

B: Bonus

F: Fear of reprisal, or intimidation

P: Professional collaboration

O: Other, including personal loyalty, (describe)

U: Unknown.

PREVIOUS INFORMANT:

Indicate yes (Y) or No (N). For previous informant, indicate month and year of last contribution.

TYPE OF INFORMATION

Both elephant related and non-elephant related intelligence will be surveyed.

Elephant Related: Indicate illegal activities relating to elephant poaching including elephant killing, location of ivory stocks and firearms, possession of elephant meat, etc.

Non Elephant Related: Indicate information relating to other illegal activities including hunting, forest product exploitation, mining operations, etc.

ACTION TAKEN

Note action taken as a result of information received. These include:

P: Follow-up Patrol

R: Request for confirming information or verification

A: Arrest

O: Other (describe in notes)

None: No discrete action taken.

BONUS

Provide the cash value of bonus provided to the informant, and whether in cash or kind (share of seized goods, etc.). When no bonus is provided, indicate this as None.

INTELLIGENCE REPORTS

MONTHLY REPORT FORM
 

MIKE SITE: Coverage: Protected Area: INTELLIGENCE NETWORK: Active: Non Active: Non-Existant: Note:

Non-Protected:

FORM REF. #: PERIOD COVERED: DATE RECORDED: TOTAL PAGES

RECORDER: INFORMATION PROVIDED BY:

Intelligence effort summary:

Ref No



Informant
Code



Date



Direct/Indirect

Location



Incident



Occupation



Initiator



Motivation



Previous
Informant

Type of Information
---------------------------------------------



Action Taken



Bonus provided

 

Informant

Elephant Related

Other
Illegal Activities

                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           
                           

ADDITIONAL NOTES