RECALLING Resolution Conf. 11.22, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its 11th meeting (Gigiri, 2000);
NOTING that biological nomenclature is dynamic;
AWARE that the names of the genera and species of several families are in need of standardization and that the current lack of a standard reference with adequate information decreases the effectiveness of the implementation of CITES in conserving the many species that are listed in the Appendices;
RECOGNIZING that the taxonomy used in the Appendices to the Convention will be most useful to the Parties if standardized by nomenclatural references;
AWARE that the former Nomenclature Committee identified names of taxa used in the Appendices to the Convention that should be changed to reflect accepted use in biology;
NOTING that these changes should be adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention;
RECOGNIZING that there are several taxa included in the Appendices of which domesticated forms exist, and that in several cases the Parties have chosen to discriminate between the wild form and the domesticated form by applying a name that differs from the name cited in the standard nomenclature for the protected form;
RECOGNIZING that, in the case of new proposals for listing in the Appendices, the Parties should use adopted standard references whenever available;
CONSIDERING the great practical difficulties involved in recognizing many of the subspecies at present listed in the Appendices when they appear in trade, and the need to weigh ease of subspecies identification against reliability of information on geographic source, for enforcement purposes;
THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION
AGREES that species of fungi are covered by the Convention;
a) a subspecies be proposed for inclusion in the Appendices only if it is generally recognized as a valid taxon, and easily identifiable in the traded form;
b) where there are identification difficulties, the problem be approached by either including the entire species in Appendix I or Appendix II or by circumscribing the range of the subspecies warranting protection and listing the populations within this area on a country basis;
c) where there are domesticated forms of listed taxa, the Animals and Plants Committees recommend names for the wild and domestic forms;
d) when submitting a proposal to amend the Appendices to the Convention, the proponent identify the reference used to describe the entity being proposed;
e) upon receiving proposals to amend the Appendices to the Convention, the Secretariat seek, where appropriate, the advice of the Animals and Plants Committees on the correct names to use for the species or other taxa in question;
f) whenever a change in the name of a taxon included in the Appendices is proposed, the Secretariat, in consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee, determine whether this change would alter the scope of protection for fauna or flora under the Convention. In the case where the scope of a taxon is redefined, the Animals or Plants Committee shall evaluate whether acceptance of the taxonomic change would cause additional species to be included in the Appendices or listed species to be deleted from the Appendices and, if that is the case, the Depositary Government should be requested to submit a proposal to amend the Appendices in accordance with the recommendation of the Animals or Plants Committee, so that the original intent of the listing is retained. Such proposals should be submitted for consideration at the next regular meeting of the Conference of the Parties, at which the recommendations of the Animals and Plants Committees will be considered;
g) if there is conflict regarding the choice of taxonomic authority for taxa for which no standard references have been adopted by the Conference of the Parties, countries authorizing export of animals or plants (or parts or derivatives thereof) of such taxa inform the CITES Secretariat and prospective importing countries of their preferred published taxonomic authority. Taxonomic authority means a recent published paper or monograph that reviews the nomenclature of the taxon being exported and that has been reviewed by professionals in the pertinent discipline. In cases where specimens of the taxon are exported from several countries and the exporting countries do not agree, or the exporting and importing countries do not agree, on the taxonomic authority, the Animals or Plants Committee should determine the most appropriate taxonomic authority, until a formal recommendation to the Conference of the Parties is made. The Animals or Plants Committee shall include this interim decision in its report to the Conference of the Parties, for adoption. The Secretariat shall notify the Parties about the interim decision;
h) the Secretariat be provided with the citations (and ordering information) of checklists that will be nominated for standard references at least six months before the meeting of the Conference of the Parties at which such checklists will be considered. The Secretariat shall include such information in a Notification to the Parties so that Parties can obtain copies to review if they wish before the meeting;
i) final recommendations to update current or adopt new standard nomenclatural references should be made available 150 days prior to every meeting of the Conference of the Parties; and
j) when the Animals or Plants Committee recommends a change in the name of a taxon to be used in the Appendices, it also provide an evaluation of the implications for the implementation of the Convention;
RECOMMENDS the following procedure for updating current standard nomenclatural references and adoption of new ones:
a) the process for updating current standard nomenclatural references and adoption of new ones shall be initiated directly by the Animals or Plants Committee on their own initiative or by the submission of a proposal to the Committees by:
i) one or more Parties; or
ii) the Secretariat, on its own initiative or in response to information it has received from the Parties; and
b) proposed changes shall be based on recognized taxonomic publications. In the case where a proposed amendment to the nomenclatural status of a taxon is still under discussion, the new taxonomy should not be adopted;
RESOLVES that the Secretariat, in consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee, may make orthographical changes in the lists of species included in the Appendices to the Convention, without consulting the Conference of the Parties, and it shall inform the Parties of those changes;
ADOPTS the taxonomic and nomenclatural references listed in the Annex to this Resolution as the official standard references for species included in the Appendices;
RECOGNIZES the Checklist of CITES species, compiled by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2005, and its updates, as an official digest of scientific names contained in the standard references, that fully reflects the taxonomy and nomenclature contained in the original species proposals, the recommendations of the Animals or Plants Committee and all accepted names included in the standard references that have been adopted by the Conference of the Parties for species included in the Appendices;
AGREES that the adoption of a standard checklist or reference by the Conference of the Parties does not by itself change the status vis-à-vis CITES of any entity, whether it is listed in the Appendices or not, and the status of the entity remains as intended in the proposal adopted by the Conference unless specifically changed by the adoption of a further amendment proposal;
URGES Parties to assign to their Scientific Authorities the principal responsibility for:
a) interpretation of the listings;
b) consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee as appropriate;
c) identification of nomenclatural issues that may warrant further review by the appropriate CITES committee and preparation of proposals to amend the Appendices if appropriate; and
d) supporting and cooperating in the development and maintenance of the checklists;
REQUESTS the Secretariat to make each standard reference for Orchidaceae available to the Parties immediately after its completion; and
REPEALS Resolution Conf. 11.22 (Gigiri, 2000) Standard nomenclature.
List of standard references adopted by the Conference of the Parties1
Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (ed.) (2005): Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition, Vol. 1-2, xxxv + 2142 pp. Baltimore (John Hopkins University Press). [for all mammals with the exception of the recognition of the following names for wild forms of species (in preference to names for domestic forms): Bos gaurus, Bos mutus, Bubalus arnee, Equus africanus, Equus przewalskii, Ovis orientalis ophion; and with the exception of the species mentioned below]
Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (1993): Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition. xviii + 1207 pp., Washington (Smithsonian Institution Press). [for Loxodonta africana and Ovis vignei]Aves
Morony, J. J., Bock, W. J. & Farrand, J., Jr. (1975): Reference List of the Birds of the World. American Museum of Natural History. 207 pp. [for order- and family-level names for birds]
Dickinson, E.C. (ed.)(2003): The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Revised and enlarged 3rd Edition. 1039 pp. London (Christopher Helm).
Dickinson, E.C. (2005): Corrigenda 4 (02.06.2005) to Howard & Moore Edition 3 (2003) [for all bird species except for the taxa mentioned below]
Collar, N. J. (1997) Family Psittacidae (Parrots). In del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds.), Handbook of the Birds of the World, 4 (Sandgrouse to Cuckoos): 280-477. Barcelona (Lynx Edicions). [for Psittacus intermedia and Trichoglossus haematodus]Reptilia
Andreone, F., Mattioli, F., Jesu, R. & Randrianirina, J. E. (2001): Two new chameleons of the genus Calumma from north-east Madagascar, with observations on hemipenial morphology in the Calumma furcifer group (Reptilia, Squamata, Chamaeleonidae) Herpetological Journal, 11: 53-68. [for Calumma vatosoa & Calumma vencesi]
Avila Pires, T. C. S. (1995): Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia Zool. Verh. , 299: 706 pp. [for Tupinambis]
Böhme, W. (1997): Eine neue Chamäleon-Art aus der Calumma gastrotaenia Verwandtschaft Ost-Madagaskars Herpetofauna (Weinstadt), 19 (107): 5-10. [for Calumma glawi]
Böhme, W. (2003): Checklist of the living monitor lizards of the world (family Varanidae) Zoologische Verhandelingen. Leiden, 341: 1-43. [for Varanidae]
Broadley, D. G. (2006): CITES Standard reference for the species of Cordylus (Cordylidae, Reptilia) prepared at the request of the CITES Nomenclature Committee [for Cordylus]
Burton, F.J. (2004): Revision to Species Cyclura nubila lewisi, the Grand Cayman Blue Iguana Caribbean Journal of Science, 40(2): 198-203. [for Cyclura lewisi]
Cei, J. M. (1993): Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina herpetofauna de las selvas subtropicales, Puna y Pampa Monografie XIV, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali. [for Tupinambis]
Colli, G. R., Péres, A. K. & da Cunha, H. J. (1998): A new species of Tupinambis (Squamata: Teiidae) from central Brazil, with an analysis of morphological and genetic variation in the genus Herpetologica 54: 477-492. [for Tupinambis cerradensis]
Dirksen, L. (2002): Anakondas. NTV Wissenschaft. [for Eunectes beniensis]
Fritz, U. & Hava, P. (2006): CITES Checklist of Chelonians of the World [for Testudines for species and family names with the exception of the retention of the following names Mauremys iversoni, Mauremys pritchardi, Ocadia glyphistoma, Ocadia philippeni, Sacalia pseudocellata]
Hallmann, G., Krüger, J. & Trautmann, G. (1997): Faszinierende Taggeckos Die Gattung Phelsuma. 229 pp. Münster (Natur & Tier-Verlag) (ISBN 3-931587-10-X). [for the genus Phelsuma]
Harvey, M. B., Barker, D. B., Ammerman, L. K. & Chippindale, P. T. (2000): Systematics of pythons of the Morelia amethistina complex (Serpentes: Boidae) with the description of three new species Herpetological Monographs, 14: 139-185. [for Morelia clastolepis, Morelia nauta & Morelia tracyae, and elevation to species level of Morelia kinghorni]
Hedges, B. S., Estrada, A. R. & Diaz, L. M. (1999): New snake (Tropidophis) from western Cuba Copeia 1999(2): 376-381. [for Tropidophis celiae]
Hedges, B. S. & Garrido, O. (1999): A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from central Cuba Journal of Herpetology, 33: 436-441. [for Tropidophis spiritus]
Hedges, B. S., Garrido, O. & Diaz, L. M. (2001): A new banded snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from north-central Cuba Journal of Herpetology, 35: 615-617. [for Tropidophis morenoi]
Hedges, B. S. & Garrido, O. (2002): A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from Eastern Cuba Journal of Herpetology, 36:157-161. [for Tropidophis hendersoni]
Hollingsworth, B.D. (2004): The Evolution of Iguanas: An Overview of Relationships and a Checklist of Species. pp. 19-44. In: Alberts, A.C., Carter, R.L., Hayes, W.K. & Martins, E.P. (Eds), Iguanas: Biology and Conservation. Berkeley (University of California Press). [for Iguanidae]
Jacobs, H. J. (2003): A further new emerald tree monitor lizard of the Varanus prasinus species group from Waigeo, West Irian (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae) Salamandra, 39(2): 65-74. [for Varanus boehmei]
Jesu, R., Mattioli, F. & Schimenti, G. (1999): On the discovery of a new large chameleon inhabiting the limestone outcrops of western Madagascar: Furcifer nicosiai sp. nov. (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae) 2 Doriana 7(311): 1-14. [for Furcifer nicosiai]
Keogh, J. S., Barker, D. G. & Shine, R. 2001. Heavily exploited but poorly known: systematics and biogeography of commercially harvested pythons (Python curtus group) in Southeast Asia Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 73: 113-129. [for Python breitensteini & Python brongersmai]
Klaver, C. J. J. and Böhme, W. (1997): Chamaeleonidae Das Tierreich, 112, 85 pp. [for Bradypodion, Brookesia, Calumma, Chamaeleo & Furcifer except for the recognition of Calumma andringitaensis, C. guillaumeti, C. hilleniusi & C. marojezensis as valid species]
Manzani, P. R. & Abe, A. S. (1997): A new species of Tupinambis Daudin, 1802 (Squamata, Teiidae) from central Brazil Boletim do Museu Nacional Nov. Ser. Zool., 382: 1-10. [for Tupinambis quadrilineatus]
Manzani, P. R. & Abe, A. S. (2002): A new species of Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 from southeastern Brazil Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 60(4): 295-302. [for Tupinambis palustris]
Massary, J.-C. de & Hoogmoed, M. (2001): The valid name for Crocodilurus lacertinus auctorum (nec Daudin, 1802) (Squamata: Teiidae) Journal of Herpetology, 35: 353-357. [for Crocodilurus amazonicus]
McDiarmid, R. W., Campbell, J. A. & Touré, T. A. (1999): Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Volume 1, Washington, DC. (The Herpetologists League). [for Loxocemidae, Pythonidae, Boidae, Bolyeriidae, Tropidophiidae & Viperidae except for the retention of the genera Acrantophis, Sanzinia, Calabaria & Lichanura and the recognition of Epicrates maurus as a valid species]
Nussbaum, R. A., Raxworthy, C. J., Raselimanana, A. P. & Ramanamanjato, J. B. 2000. New species of day gecko, Phelsuma Gray (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae), from the Reserve Naturelle Integrale d'Andohahela, south Madagascar. Copeia 2000: 763-770. [for Phelsuma malamakibo]
Pough, F. H., Andrews, R. M., Cadle, J. E., Crump, M. L., Savitzky, A. H. & Wells, K. D. (1998): Herpetology. Upper Saddle River/New Jersey (Prentice Hall). [for delimitation of families within the Sauria]
Rösler , H., Obst, F. J. & Seipp, R. (2001): Eine neue Taggecko-Art von Westmadagaskar: Phelsuma hielscheri sp. n. (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae) Zool. Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 51: 51-60. [for Phelsuma hielscheri]
Slowinski, J. B. & Wüster, W. (2000.): A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma) Herpetologica, 56: 257-270. [for Naja mandalayensis]
Tilbury, C. (1998): Two new chameleons (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from isolated Afromontane forests in Sudan and Ethiopia Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 47: 293-299. [for Chamaeleo balebicornutus & Chamaeleo conirostratus]
Wermuth, H. & Mertens, R. (1996) (reprint): Schildkröte, Krokodile, Brückenechsen. xvii + 506 pp. Jena (Gustav Fischer Verlag). [for Testudines order names, Crocodylia & Rhynchocephalia]
Wilms, T. (2001): Dornschwanzagamen: Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. 142 pp. Offenbach (Herpeton, Verlag Elke Köhler) ( ISBN 3-9806214-7-2). [for the genus Uromastyx]
Wüster, W. (1996): Taxonomic change and toxinology: systematic revisions of the Asiatic cobras Naja naja species complex Toxicon, 34: 339-406. [for Naja atra, Naja kaouthia, Naja oxiana, Naja philippinensis, Naja sagittifera, Naja samarensis, Naja siamensis, Naja sputatrix & Naja sumatrana]Amphibia
Brown, J.L., Schulte, R. & Summers, K. (2006): A new species of Dendrobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from the Amazonian lowlands of Peru Zootaxa, 1152: 45-58. [for Dendrobates uakarii]
Taxonomic Checklist of CITES-listed Amphibians, information extracted from Frost, D. R. (ed.) (2004), Amphibian Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference, an online reference, Version 3.03 as of 7 April 2006 [for Amphibia]Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii
Eschmeier, W. N. (1998): Catalog of Fishes. 3 vols. California Academy of Sciences. [for all fishes]
Horne, M. L. (2001): A new seahorse species (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Great Barrier Reef Records of the Australian Museum, 53: 243-246. [for Hippocampus]
Kuiter, R. H. (2001): Revision of the Australian seahorses of the genus Hippocampus (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) with a description of nine new species Records of the Australian Museum, 53: 293-340. [for Hippocampus]
Kuiter, R. H. (2003): A new pygmy seahorse (Pisces: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from Lord Howe Island Records of the Australian Museum, 55: 113-116. [for Hippocampus]
Lourie, S. A. & Randall, J. E. (2003): A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from the Indo-Pacific Zoological Studies, 42: 284-291. [for Hippocampus]
Lourie, S. A., Vincent, A. C. J. & Hall, H. J. (1999): Seahorses. An identification guide to the worlds species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, (ISBN 0 9534693 0 1) (Second edition available on CD-ROM). [for Hippocampus]Arachnida
Lourenço, W. R. & Cloudsley-Thompson, J. C. (1996): Recognition and distribution of the scorpions of the genus Pandinus Thorell, 1876 accorded protection by the Washington Convention Biogeographica, 72(3): 133-143. [for scorpions of the genus Pandinus]
Taxonomic Checklist of CITES listed Spider Species, information extracted from Platnick, N. (2006), The World Spider Catalog, an online reference, Version 6.54 as of 7 April 2006 [for Theraphosidae]Insecta
The Plant-Book, second edition, [D.J. Mabberley, 1997, Cambridge University Press (reprinted with corrections 1998)] for the generic names of all plants listed in the Appendices of the Convention, unless they are superseded by standard checklists adopted by the Conference of the Parties).
A Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8th edition, (J.C. Willis, revised by H.K. Airy Shaw, 1973, Cambridge University Press) for generic synonyms not mentioned in The Plant-Book, unless they are superseded by standard checklists adopted by the Conference of the Parties as referenced below.
A World List of Cycads (D.W. Stevenson, R. Osborne and K.D. Hill, 1995; In: P. Vorster (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cycad Biology, pp. 55-64, Cycad Society of South Africa, Stellenbosch) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Cycadaceae, Stangeriaceae and Zamiaceae.
CITES Bulb Checklist (A.P. Davis et al., 1999, compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Cyclamen (Primulaceae) and Galanthus and Sternbergia (Liliaceae).
CITES Cactaceae Checklist, second edition, (1999, compiled by D. Hunt, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Cactaceae.
CITES Carnivorous Plant Checklist, second edition, (B. von Arx et al., 2001, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Dionaea, Nepenthes and Sarracenia.
CITES Aloe and Pachypodium Checklist (U. Eggli et al., 2001, compiled by Städtische Sukkulenten-Sammlung, Zurich, Switzerland, in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and its update: An Update and Supplement to the CITES Aloe & Pachypodium Checklist [J.M. Lüthy (2007), CITES Management Authority of Switzerland, Bern, Switzerland], and their updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Aloe and Pachypodium.
World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers (A. Farjon, 2001) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Taxus.
CITES Orchid Checklist, (compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Cattleya, Cypripedium, Laelia, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Phragmipedium, Pleione and Sophronitis (Volume 1, 1995) and Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Disa, Dracula and Encyclia (Volume 2, 1997), and Aerangis, Angraecum, Ascocentrum, Bletilla, Brassavola, Calanthe, Catasetum, Miltonia, Miltonioides and Miltoniopsis, Renanthera, Renantherella, Rhynchostylis, Rossioglossum, Vanda and Vandopsis (Volume 3, 2001); and Aerides, Coelogyne, Comparettia and Masdevallia (Volume 4, 2006).
The CITES Checklist of Succulent Euphorbia Taxa (Euphorbiaceae), Second edition (S. Carter and U. Eggli, 2003, published by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of succulent euphorbias.
Dicksonia species of the Americas (2003, compiled by Bonn Botanic Garden and the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany) and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Dicksonia.
Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Germishuizen, G. & Meyer N.L. (eds.) (2003). Strelitzia 14: 561. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria, South Africa and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Hoodia.
Lista de especies, nomenclatura y distribución en el genero Guaiacum. Davila Aranda & Schippmann (2006): Medicinal Plant Conservation 12:50, and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Guaiacum.
CITES checklist for Bulbophyllum and allied taxa (Orchidaceae). Sieder, A., Rainer, H., Kiehn, M. (2007): Address of the authors: Department of Biogeography and Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna; Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna (Austria), and its updates accepted by the Plants Committee, as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Bulbophyllum.
|*||Amended at the 13th and 14th meetings of the Conference of the Parties.|
|1||The publications provided in this Resolution as hyperlinks are copyrighted and may not be reproduced for commercial purposes.|
|2||Posted online with the permission of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale G. Doria, Genova.|
|3||The most recent version of this online reference can be accessed here.|
|4||The most recent version of this online reference can be accessed here.|