CITES glossary

A B C D E F G H I L M N P Q R S T U V W
A  

Affected by trade

Characteristic of a species if:

1. It is known to be in trade and that trade has or may have a detrimental impact on the status of the species; or

2. It is suspected to be in trade, or there is demonstrable potential international demand for the species, that may be detrimental to its survival in the wild.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: affectée par le commerce / Spanish: afectada por el comercio

Amendment proposal

A proposal to include a species in Appendix I or II, delete it from the Appendices or transfer it from one Appendix to the other.

Such a proposal may be put forward only by a Party to the Convention and has to be made in accordance with Article XV of the Convention.

Amendments to Appendix III are the result of unilateral decisions by Parties and do not need to go through a process of submission and voting.

See also: Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), especially Annex 6

French: proposition d’amendement / Spanish: propuesta de enmienda

Animals Committee (AC)

A committee of experts established by the Conference of the Parties, responsible for providing scientific and technical advice in relation to species of animals that are, or might become, subject to the provisions of CITES.

See also: The structure of CITES / The Animals and Plants Committees; Animals Committee meetings; Resolution Conf.  11.1 (Rev. CoP16).

French: Comité pour les animaux / Spanish: Comité de Fauna

Annotation

A note attached to certain species in the Appendices to indicate which population, parts or derivatives are concerned by the listing or clarifying its scope, or containing special conditions relating to the inclusion of the species. The note may be a code that refers to the introductory interpretation of the Appendices.

See also: Resolution Conf.  11.21 (Rev. CoP16)

French: annotation / Spanish: anotación

Annual report

A report submitted to the Secretariat by each Party every year on its implementation of the Convention and containing a summary of the following information: the number and type of permits and certificates granted to authorize trade in CITES specimens; the States with which such trade occurred; the numbers or quantities and types of specimens, names of species as included in Appendices I, II and III and, where applicable, the size and sex of the specimens in question.

The submission of annual reports is an obligation for Parties under Article VIII, paragraph 7 (a), of the Convention. They should be submitted by 31 October of each year following the year to which the report refers. The data received are stored in a computer database by UNEP-WCMC. Annual reports should be submitted in a standard format, which is contained in the Guidelines for the preparation and submission of CITES annual reports.

In accordance with Article XII, paragraph 2 (g), of the Convention, the CITES Secretariat also prepares annual reports on its work and on the implementation of the Convention. These reports can be accessed here.

See also: Resolution Conf.  11.17 (Rev. CoP16); Reporting under the Convention

[Definition adapted from Article VIII, paragraphs 6 (b) and 7]

French: rapport annuel / Spanish: informe anual

Appendix (I, II, III and IV)

One of the Annexes to the text of the Convention.

1. Annexes I, II and III list the species covered by the Convention and may be amended pursuant to Articles XV (Appendices I and II) and XVI (Appendix III).

a) Appendix I includes all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade. Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorized in exceptional circumstances.

b) Appendix II includes:

i) all species which although not necessarily now threatened with extinction may become so unless trade in specimens of these species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival; and

ii) other species which must be subject to regulation in order that trade in specimens of certain species referred to in subparagraph i) above may be brought under effective control [e.g. species that are similar in appearance to those included in Appendix II].

c. Appendix III includes all species which any Party identifies as being subject to regulation within its jurisdiction for the purpose of preventing or restricting exploitation, and as needing the cooperation of other Parties in the control of trade.

The Parties may not allow trade in specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III except in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

2. Appendix IV contains the information to be included in a CITES permit or certificate. The Conference of the Parties has adopted a standard CITES permit/certificate model in Resolution Conf.  12.3 Rev. CoP15) on Permits and certificates.

See also: How CITES works; Article II; Appendices I, II y III; Resolution Conf. 9.25 (Rev. CoP16)

(Definition from Article II)

French: Annexe (I, II, III et IV) / Spanish: Apéndice (I, II, III y IV)

Appropriate and acceptable destination

The destination of a living specimen, where the Scientific Authority of the State of import is satisfied that the proposed recipient is suitably equipped to house and care for it.

This term appears in an annotation to the listing in Appendix II of the Convention of the populations of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) of South Africa and Swaziland, and of the populations of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) of Botswana and Zimbabwe. The term "appropriate and acceptable aquaria" is similarly used in relation to the freshwater sawfish (Pristis microdon).

(Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.20)

French: destinataire approprié et acceptable / Spanish: destinatario apropiado y aceptable

Area of distribution

The area contained within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary which can be drawn to encompass all the known, inferred or projected sites of occurrence of a species, excluding cases of vagrancy and introductions outside its natural range.

The area within the imaginary boundary should, however, exclude significant areas where the species does not occur, and so, in defining an area of distribution, account should be taken of discontinuities or disjunctions in the spatial distribution of species. This encompasses the concept of area of occupancy. For migratory species, the area of distribution is the smallest area essential at any stage for the survival of that species (e.g. colonial nesting sites, feeding sites for migratory taxa, etc.).

The determination that a species has a restricted area of distribution is taxon-specific and should take into account considerations such as habitat specificity, population density and endemism.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: aire de répartition / Spanish: area de distribución

Artificially propagated

Characteristic of plant specimens:

1. grown under controlled conditions; and

2. grown from seeds, cuttings, divisions, callus tissues or other plant tissues, spores or other propagules that either are exempt from the provisions of the Convention or have been derived from cultivated parental stock;

or, for agarwood-producing taxa,

grown from seeds, seedlings, saplings, cuttings, grafting, marcoting/air-layering, divisions, plant tissues or other propagules that have been derived from wild or cultivated parental stocks, according to the definition of 'cultivated parental stock' in Resolution Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15);

See also: Resolutions Conf.  9.19 (Rev. CoP15) and Conf. 10.13 (Rev. CoP15); bred in captivity

[Definition from Resolutions Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15) and, for agarwood-producing taxa, Conf.  16.10]

French: reproduit artificiellement / Spanish: reproducido artificialmente

B  

Biennial report

A report submitted to the Secretariat by each Party every two years on the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures taken to enforce the provisions of the Convention.

Biennial reports provide an opportunity for Parties to share information regarding their overall implementation of the Convention, including their progress in the development and application of laws and regulations, administrative procedures, economic and social incentives and wildlife trade policies. Such reports may contain summaries of national compliance and enforcement efforts (e.g. awareness-raising, training, monitoring, inspections, investigations, seizures, confiscations, prosecutions, convictions, penalties, court decisions, etc.). Biennial reports should be submitted in a standard format, which is contained in Notification to the Parties No. 2005/035.

The submision of biennial reports is an obligation for Parties under Article VIII, paragraph 7 (b), of the Convention.

See also: Resolution Conf.  11.17 (Rev. CoP16);Reporting under the Convention

(Definition adapted from Article VIII, paragraph 7)

French: rapport bisannuel / Spanish: informe bienal

Bred in captivity

Characteristic of animal specimens, as defined in Article I, paragraph (b), of the Convention, born or otherwise produced in a controlled environment, and applied only if:

i) the parents mated or gametes were otherwise transferred in a controlled environment, if reproduction is sexual, or the parents were in a controlled environment when development of the offspring began, if reproduction is asexual; and
ii) the breeding stock, to the satisfaction of the competent government authorities of the exporting country:
  A. was established in accordance with the provisions of CITES and relevant national laws and in a manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild;
  B. is maintained without the introduction of specimens from the wild, except for the occasional addition of animals, eggs or gametes, in accordance with the provisions of CITES and relevant national laws and in a manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild as advised by the Scientific Authority:
   

1. to prevent or alleviate deleterious inbreeding, with the magnitude of such addition determined by the need for new genetic material;

2. to dispose of confiscated animals in accordance with Resolution Conf.  10.7 (Rev. CoP15); or

3. exceptionally, for use as breeding stock; and

  C.

1. has produced offspring of second generation (F2) or subsequent generation (F3, F4, etc.) in a controlled environment; or

2. is managed in a manner that has been demonstrated to be capable of reliably producing second-generation offspring in a controlled environment.

This definition applies to the specimens bred in captivity of species included in Appendix I, II or III, whether or not they were bred for commercial purposes.

See also: ranching; artificially propagated

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.16 (Rev.)]

French: élevé en captivité / Spanish: criado en cautividad

Breeding stock

The ensemble of the animals used for reproduction in a captive-breeding operation.

See also Parental stock (cultivated ~)

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.16 (Rev.)]

French: cheptel reproducteur / Spanish: plantel reproductor

Bushmeat

The meat for human consumption derived from wild animals.

[Definition from document Doc. 11.44]

French: viande de brousse / Spanish: carne de animales silvestres


C

Caviar

The processed unfertilized eggs (roe) of Acipenseriformes species.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: caviar / Spanish: caviar

Caviar labelling

See Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annexes 1 and 2

French: étiquetage du caviar / Spanish: etiquetado del caviar

Certificate

An official document issued by a Management Authority of a Party and used to authorize different types of trade in CITES specimens. The most important are the re-export certificate, certificate of origin, pre-Convention certificate, certificate of introduction from the sea and certificate of captive-breeding or artificial propagation.

See also: Resolutions Conf.  9.5 (Rev. CoP16) and Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16); permit

French: certificat / Spanish: certificado

CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)

An international agreement concluded between States, the aim of which is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

The text of the Convention was agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington DC., United States of America, on 3 March 1973. CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. It is legally binding on the Parties – in other words they have to implement the Convention – but does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.

See also: What is CITES?

French: CITES (Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d'extinction) / Spanish: CITES (Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres)

CITES Secretariat

The body established by Article XII of the Convention, responsible for providing advice to the Parties on the practical implementation of the Convention, organizing the meetings, providing reference material and technical assistance, acting as a central registry of information, assisting with communication and monitoring the implementation of the Convention to ensure that its provisions are respected.

See also: The structure of CITES; The Secretariat.

French: Secrétariat CITES / Spanish: Secretaría CITES

Clearing-house of the Standing Committee

Body comprising two officials nominated by Parties and appointed by the Standing Committee to advise on the handling of technical implementation issues referred to the latter.

These persons do not hold formal meetings and all business is handled by email or by telephone. They refer their recommendations to the Chairman of the Standing Committee for a final decision, in consultation with the Committee members if appropriate.

See also: Clearing house

French: Centre de coordination du Comité permanent / Spanish: Centro de intercambio de información del Comité permanente

Conference of the Parties (CoP)

The supreme body of the Convention consisting of all Parties.

Every three years, the Conference of the Parties meets to review the implementation of the Convention. These meetings last for about two weeks and are usually hosted by one of the Parties. The meetings are often referred to as 'CoP' followed by a number indicating the number of the meeting (thus the first meeting is CoP1, the second meeting CoP2, etc.).

See also: Article XI; The structure of CITES; Conference of the Parties.

French: Conférence des Parties (CdP) / Spanish: Conferencia de las Partes (CdP)

Controlled conditions

A non-natural environment that is intensively manipulated by human intervention for the purpose of plant production.

General characteristics of controlled conditions may include but are not limited to tillage, fertilization, weed and pest control, irrigation, or nursery operations such as potting, bedding or protection from weather.

See also: Controlled environment

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: conditions contrôlées / Spanish: condiciones controladas


Controlled environment

An environment that is manipulated for the purpose of producing animals of a particular species, that has boundaries designed to prevent animals, eggs or gametes of the species from entering or leaving it, and the general characteristics of which may include but are not limited to: artificial housing; waste removal; health care; protection from predators; and artificially supplied food.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.16 (Rev.)]

French: milieu contrôlé / Spanish: medio controlado

Coral fragment (including gravel and rubble)

The unconsolidated fragment of broken finger-like dead coral and other material between 2 and 30 mm measured in any direction, which are not identifiable to the level of genus.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section X

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.10 (Rev. CoP15), Annex]

French: fragment de corail / Spanish: fragmento de coral


Coral rock

Hard consolidated material, greater than 3 cm in diameter, formed of fragments of dead coral and which may also contain cemented sand, coralline algae and other sedimentary rocks. ‘Live rock’ is the term given to pieces of coral rock to which are attached live specimens of invertebrate species and coralline algae not included in the CITES Appendices and which are transported moist, but not in water, in crates. ‘Substrate’ is the term given to pieces of coral rock to which are attached invertebrates (of species not included in the CITES Appendices) and which are transported in water like live corals. Coral rock is not identifiable to the level of genus but is recognizable to the level of order. The definition excludes specimens defined as dead coral.

Rock that does not contain any corals or in which the corals are fossilized is not subject to the provisions of the Convention.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section X

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.10 (Rev. CoP15), Annex]

French: roche de corail / Spanish: roca de coral

Coral sand

A substance consisting entirely or in part of finely crushed fragments of dead coral no larger than 2 mm in diameter and which may also contain, amongst other things, the remains of Foraminifera, mollusc and crustacean shell, and coralline algae. Coral sand is not identifiable to the level of genus.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section X

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.10 (Rev. CoP15), Annex]

French: sable de corail / Spanish: arena de coral


Country of origin

The country in which a specimen was taken from the wild, bred in captivity, artificially propagated, except in the case of plant specimens that cease to qualify for an exemption from the provisions of CITES. In such instances, the country of origin is deemed to be the country in which the specimens ceased to qualify for the exemption.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP14), Annex 2]

French: pays d'origine / Spanish: país de origen

Cultivar

An assemblage of plants that:

  1. has been selected for a particular character or combination of characters;


  2. is distinct, uniform, and stable in these characters; and
  3. when propagated by appropriate means, retains those characters.

This definition follows the definition of the 8th edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, which also states that no new taxon of cultivated plants (including a cultivar) can be regarded as such until its category name and circumscription have been formally published.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: cultivar / Spanish: cultivar

D  

Dead coral

Any pieces of coral that are dead when exported, but that may have been alive when collected, and in which the structure of corallites (the skeleton of the individual polyp) is still intact; specimens are therefore identifiable to the level of species or genus.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section X

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.10 (Rev. CoP15), Annex]

French: corail mort / Spanish: coral muerto

Decision

An agreement between the Parties typically containing instructions to a specific committee, Parties or the Secretariat.

Decisions are typically intended to remain in effect for a short period only, usually until a particular task has been completed. Many Decisions require a report to be submitted at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties following that at which they were adopted, and so would remain in effect from one meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the next. The list of Decisions is therefore revised by the Secretariat after each such meeting, in accordance with Resolution Conf. 4.6 (Rev. CoP16), second DIRECTS, paragraph b), at which time it deletes the Decisions that are out of date.

See also: Introduction to the Decisions; Decisions in effect; Resolution

French: décision / Spanish: decisión

Decline

A reduction in the abundance, or area of distribution, or area of habitat of a species.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: déclin / Spanish: disminución

Derivative

Any processed part of an animal or plant (e.g. medicine, perfume, watch strap).

See also: part; Resolution Conf. 10.13 (Rev. CoP15)

French: produit / Spanish: derivado

Dialogue meeting

A consultative meeting organized between range States of a certain species or group of species, with the aim of seeking consensus in relation to a proposal submitted for amendment of the CITES Appendices when there are strong divisions between those States.

So far, there have been dialogue meetings only for range States of the African elephant and the hawksbill turtle. Parties that have donated funds towards the organization of those meetings may also attend them, if agreed by the range States. The Rules of Procedure of dialogue meetings are provided in the Annex to Resolution Conf. 14.5.

(Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  14.5)

French: réunion de Dialogue / Spanish: reunión de diálogo

Domestic trade

Any commercial activity, including, but not limited to, sale and purchase, within the territory under the jurisdiction of a Party.

French: commerce intérieur / Spanish: comercio interno

E

ETIS (Elephant Trade Information System)

A database used to compile law enforcement data on seizures and confiscations of elephant specimens.

See also: Elephants (MIKE and ETIS); Resolution Conf.  10.10 (Rev. CoP16)

French: ETIS (Système d'information sur le commerce de produits d'éléphants) ETIS / Spanish: ETIS (Sistema de información sobre el comercio de elefantes)

Ex situ

Outside the natural range of a species.

Often used in the phrase 'ex situ operation' in reference to captive-breeding or artificial propagation operations.

See also: Notification to the Parties No. 2001/091

French: ex situ / Spanish: ex situ

Exemption

An exclusion from the scope of the Convention.

Exemptions may apply to specimens that are artificially propagated or bred in captivity; to personal and household effects; scientific institutions; specimens in transit; travelling exhibitions, etc.

See also: Article VII, paragraphs 1 and 3; annotation.

French: dérogation / Spanish: exención

Extract

Any substance obtained directly from plant material by physical or chemical means regardless of the manufacturing process. An extract may be solid (e.g. crystals, resin, fine or coarse particles), semi-solid (e.g. gums, waxes) or liquid (e.g. solutions, tinctures, oil and essential oils).

This term is used in annotations #3, #7, #11 and #12 in the CITES Appendices, in relation to plant taxa. The definition is to be reviewed by a working group of the Standing Committee before the 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2016.

See also: Appendices; finished product packaged and ready for retail trade; powder; woodchips

[Definition from document CoP16 Doc. 75 (Rev. 1)]

French: extrait / Spanish: extracto

F  

Finished product packaged and ready for retail trade

Product, shipped singly or in bulk, requiring no further processing, packaged, labelled for final use or the retail trade in a state fit for being sold to or used by the general public.

This expression is used in annotations #4 and #14 in the CITES Appendices, in relation to plant taxa. The definition is to be reviewed by a working group of the Standing Committee before the 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2016.

See also: Appendices; extract; powder; woodchips

[Definition from document CoP16 Doc. 76 (Rev. 1)]

French: produit fini emballé et prêt pour le commerce de détail / Spanish: producto acabado empaquetado y listo para el comercio al por menor

First-generation offspring (F1)

The progeny produced in a controlled environment from parents at least one of which was conceived in or taken from the wild.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.16 (Rev.)]

French: Descendance de première génération (F1) / Spanish: progenie de primera generación (F1)

Fluctuation

Wide, rapid and frequent variation of the population size or area of distribution in a number of species, with a variation greater than one order of magnitude.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: fluctuation / Spanish: fluctuación

Fragmentation

A case where most individuals within a taxon are found in small and relatively isolated sub-populations, which increases the probability that these small sub-populations will become extinct and the opportunities for re-establishment are limited.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: fragmentation / Spanish: fragmentación

G  

Generation length

The average age of parents of the current cohort (i.e. newborn individuals in the population).

Generation length therefore reflects the turnover rate of breeding individuals in a population. Generation length is greater than the age at first breeding and less than the age of the oldest breeding individual, except in taxa that breed only once. Where generation length varies under threat, the more natural (i.e. pre-disturbance) generation length should be used.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: durée d’une génération / Spanish: duración de la generación

H

Hybrid

An animal or plant that is produced as the result of cross-breeding between two different species.

See also: Resolutions Conf.  10.17 (Rev. CoP14) and Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15)

French: hybride / Spanish: híbrido

Hunting trophy

A whole animal, or a readily recognizable part or derivative of an animal, specified on any accompanying CITES permit or certificate, that:

1) is raw, processed or manufactured;

2) was legally obtained by the hunter through hunting for the hunter’s personal use; and

3) is being imported, exported or re-exported by or on behalf of the hunter, as part of the transfer from its country of origin, ultimately to the hunter's State of usual residence.

[Definition from Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section I]

French: trophée de chasse / Spanish: trofeo de caza

 
I

Identification Manual

A manual including description sheets of specimens of animal and plant species included in the CITES Appendices.

See also: Resolution Conf.  11.19 (Rev. CoP16)

French: manuel d’identification / Spanish: manual de identificación


In situ

Within the natural range of a species.

Often used in the phrase 'in-situ conservation' in reference to conservation efforts carried out within the range of a species.

See also: Notification to the Parties No. 2001/091

French: in situ / Spanish: in situ

International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC)

Consortium established to bring coordinated support to the national wildlife law enforcement agencies and to the subregional and regional networks that act in defence of natural resources.

In addition to the CITES Secretariat, which chairs it, ICCWC comprises four intergovernmental organizations: ICPO-INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the World Bank and the World Customs Organization (WCO).

See also: ICCWC; Resolution Conf. 11.3 (Rev. CoP16)

French: Consortium international de lutte contre la criminalité liée aux espèces sauvages / Spanish: Consorcio Internacional para Combatir los Delitos contra la Vida Silvestre

Introduction from the sea

Transportation into a State of specimens of any species which were taken in the marine environment not under the jurisdiction of any State.

See also: Resolution Conf. 14.6 (Rev. CoP16)

(Definition from Article I)

French: introduction en provenance de la mer / Spanish: introducción procedente del mar

L

Listing

The inclusion of a species in Appendix I, II or III of CITES.

The terms 'downlisting' and 'uplisting' are sometimes used. They mean the transfer of a species from Appendix I to II and from Appendix II to I, respectively, whilst the complete removal of a species from the Appendices is referred to as a "deletion from the Appendices".

French: Inscription / Spanish: Inclusión en los Apéndices

Live coral

Any pieces of live coral transported in water and that are identifiable to the level of species or genus.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section X

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  11.10 (Rev. CoP15), Annex]

French: corail vivant / Spanish: coral vivo

Log

All wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sapwood, or roughly squared, for processing, notably into sawn wood, pulpwood or veneer sheets (HS code 44.03).

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section XI

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.13 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: grume / Spanish: troza

Lot identification number

A number that corresponds to information related to the caviar tracking system used by the processing or repackaging plant.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: numéro d'identification du lot / Spanish: número de identificación de lote

M

Management Authority (MA)

A national management body designated in accordance with Article IX of the Convention.

The Management Authority is responsible for implementing the Convention in its country. In particular it is the only body competent to grant import and export permits and re-export certificates on behalf of that Party. Even though a Party may designate more than one Management Authority, one must be designated as the Management Authority responsible for communication with other Parties and the Secretariat.

The list and contact details of all Management Authorities can be accessed here.

[Definition adapted from Article I, paragraph (g), and Article IX, paragraphs 1. (a) and 2]

French: organe de gestion / Spanish: Autoridad Administrativa

Marine environment not under the jurisdiction of any State

Marine areas beyond the areas subject to the sovereignty or sovereign rights of a State consistent with international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

See also: Article I, paragraph (e)

[Definition from Resolution Conf. 14.6 (Rev. CoP16)]

French: environnement marin n’étant pas sous la juridiction d’un Etat / Spanish: medio marino fuera de la jurisdicción de cualquier Estado

Mark

An indelible imprint, lead seal or other suitable means of identifying a specimen, designed in such a way as to render its imitation by unauthorized persons as difficult as possible.

See also: Resolutions Conf.  7.12 (Rev. CoP15), Conf.  8.13 (Rev.), Conf.  10.10 (Rev. CoP16), Conf. 11.12 (Rev. CoP15) and Conf. 12.7 (Rev. CoP16) ; Uniform marking system

(Definition from Article VI, paragraph 7)

French: marque / Spanish: marca

MIKE (Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants)

A monitoring system established to contribute to an assessment of the impact of CITES decisions on the illegal hunting of elephants.

See also: Elephants (MIKE and ETIS); Resolution Conf.  10.10 (Rev. CoP16)

French: MIKE (Suivi de l'abattage illégal d'éléphants) / Spanish: MIKE (Supervisión de la matanza ilegal de elefantes)

N  
Non-detriment finding

A conclusion by a Scientific Authority that the export of specimens of a particular species will not impact negatively on the survival of that species in the wild.

The non-detriment finding by a Scientific Authority is required before an export or import permit or a certificate for an introduction from the sea may be granted for a specimen of an Appendix-I species, and before an export permit or a certificate for an introduction from the sea may be granted for a specimen of an Appendix-II species.

See also: Article III, paragraphs 2 a) and 5 a); Article IV, paragraphs 2 a) and 6 a); Resolution Conf.  16.7

French: avis de commerce non préjudiciable / Spanish: dictamen de extracción no perjudicial

Non-reusable label

Any label or mark that cannot be removed undamaged or transferred to another container, which may seal the primary container.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: étiquette inamovible / Spanish: etiqueta no reutilizable

P

Parental stock (cultivated ~)

The ensemble of plants grown under controlled conditions that are used for reproduction, and which must have been, to the satisfaction of the designated CITES authorities of the exporting country:

  1. established in accordance with the provisions of CITES and relevant national laws and in a manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild; and

  2. maintained in sufficient quantities for propagation so as to minimize or eliminate the need for augmentation from the wild, with such augmentation occurring only as an exception and limited to the amount necessary to maintain the vigour and productivity of the cultivated parental stock.

See also: breeding stock

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  11.11 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: Stock parental (cultivé) / Spanish: plantel parental (cultivado)

Part

Any part of an animal or plant (e.g. skin, shell, root) whether raw or processed in a simple way (e.g. preserved, polished, etc.).

Parts are usually readily identifiable.

See also: derivative; Resolution Conf. 10.13 (Rev. CoP15)

French: partie / Spanish: parte

Party

A State that has consented to be bound by the Convention and for which the Convention is in force.

The word 'Party' in this sense is always spelt with 'p' in upper-case.

See also: The list of Parties

(Definition adapted from Article I)

French: Partie / Spanish: Parte

Period of validity

The period during which a permit is legally acceptable.

Export permits and re-export certificates have a maximum period of validity of six months. The export and corresponding import into the country of destination must take place within these six months. Import permits may have a maximum validity of 12 months.

French: durée de validité/ Spanish: periodo de validez

Permanent committee

A committee established by the Conference of the Parties in Resolution Conf.  11.1 (Rev. CoP16) and that reports to it at each of its meetings. There are currently three such committees: the Standing Committee (which is the senior committee), the Animals Committee and the Plants Committee.

See also: The structure of CITES.

French: Comité CITES / Spanish: comité de carácter permanente

Permit

An official document issued by a Management Authority of a Party to authorize the export of a specimen of a species included in Appendix I or II, the export of a specimen of a species included in Appendix III from the State that included the species therein, or the import of a specimen of a species included in Appendix I.

A permit must conform to the requirements of the Convention and the Resolutions of the Conference of the Parties to be valid.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16); certificate

French: permis / Spanish: permiso

Personal effect / Household effect

Specimen that is:

  1. personally owned or possessed for non-commercial purposes;


  2. legally-acquired; and
  3. at the time of import, export or re-export either:

a) worn or carried or included in personal baggage; or

b) part of a household move;

The Conference of the Parties has also decided that, for the purposes of Resolution Conf. 13.7 (Rev. CoP16) on Control of trade in personal and household effects, the term ‘tourist souvenir specimen’ should apply only to personal and household effects acquired outside the owner's State of usual residence and not be applied to live specimens.

At its 16th meeting (Bangkok, 2013), the Conference also adopted a new Annex 1 to Resolution Conf. 13.7 (Rev. CoP16) where it specified that the definition in item 1 above "excludes use for commercial gain, sale, and display for commercial purposes, keeping for sale, offering for sale or transport for sale".

See also: Article VII, paragraph (3)

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 13.7 (Rev. CoP16)]

French: objet personnel / objet à usage domestique // Spanish: artículo personal / bien del hogar

Plants Committee (PC)

A committee of experts established by the Conference of the Parties, responsible for providing scientific and technical advice in relation to species of plants that are, or might become, subject to the provisions of CITES.

The regional directories prepared by the Plants Committee containing the contact details of specialists on plant issues in each Party can be accessed here.

See also: The structure of CITES; The Animals and Plants Committees; Plants Committee meetings; Resolution Conf.  11.1 (Rev. CoP16);

French: Comité pour les plantes / Spanish: Comité de Flora

Plywood

Three or more sheets of wood glued and pressed one on the other and generally disposed so that the grains of successive layers are at an angle (HS code 44.12.13, HS code 44.12.14, and HS code 44.12.22).

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 10.13 (Rev. CoP15]

French: bois contre-plaqué / Spanish: madera contrachapada

Population

The total number of individuals of a species.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: population / Spanish: población

Possibly extinct

Characteristic of a species for which exhaustive surveys in known or suspected habitat, and at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual.

Before a species can be declared possibly extinct, surveys should take place over a time frame appropriate to the species' life cycle and life form.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: présumée éteinte / Spanish: posiblemente extinguida

Powder

A dry, solid substance in the form of fine or coarse particles.

This term is used in annotations #3, #7, #8, #11 and #14 in the CITES Appendices, in relation to plant taxa. The definition is to be reviewed by a working group of the Standing Committee before the 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2016.

See also: Appendices; extract; finished product packaged and ready for retail trade; woodchips

[Definition from document CoP16 Doc. 76 (Rev. 1)]

French: poudre / Spanish: polvo

Pre-Convention specimen

A specimen acquired before the provisions of the Convention applied to it. If a certificate to this effect is issued by a Management Authority, then no other permit or certificate is required under the Convention to authorize export, import or re-export.

In Resolution Conf.  13.6 (Rev. CoP16), the Conference of the Parties recommends that, for the purposes of Article VII, paragraph 2:

a) the date from which the provisions of the Convention apply to a specimen be the date on which the species concerned was first included in the Appendices; and

b) the date on which a specimen is acquired be considered as the date on which the animal or plant or, in the case of parts or derivatives, the animal or plant from which they were taken, was known to be::

i) removed from the wild; or

ii) born in captivity or artificially propagated in a controlled environment; or

if such date is unknown or cannot be proved, the date on which the specimen was acquired shall be the earliest provable date on which it was first possessed by any person.

See also: Article VII, paragraph 2; Resolution Conf.  13.6 (Rev. CoP16)

French: spécimen pré-Convention / Spanish: espécimen preconvención

Pressed caviar

The caviar composed of unfertilized eggs (roe) of one or more sturgeon or paddlefish species, remaining after the processing and preparation of higher quality caviar.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: caviar pressé / Spanish: caviar prensado

Primarily commercial purposes

See Resolution Conf.  5.10 (Rev. CoP15), paragraph 3 under ‘General principles’.

French: fins principalement commerciales / Spanish: fines primordialmente comerciales

Primary container

The tin, jar or other receptacle that is in direct contact with the caviar.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: conteneur primaire / Spanish: contenedor primario

Processing plant

The facility in the country of origin responsible for the first packaging of caviar into a primary container.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: usine de traitement / Spanish: central de elaboración

Proponent

A Party putting forward a proposal to amend Appendix I or II of the Convention.

French: auteur d'une proposition / Spanish: autor de la propuesta

Purpose-of-transaction code

A letter used on CITES permits and certificates to indicate the purpose of trade in the specimen covered therein, as follows:

T   Commercial
Z    Zoo
G   Botanical garden
Q   Circus or travelling exhibition
S   Scientific
H   Hunting trophy
P   Personal
M   Medical (including biomedical research)
E   Educational
N   Reintroduction or introduction into the wild
B   Breeding in captivity or artificial propagation
L   Law enforcement / judicial / forensic

See also: source code

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section I]

French: code de but de la transaction / Spanish: código de propósito de la transacción

Q

Quota

See:

French: quota / Spanish: cupo

R

Ranching

Rearing in a controlled environment of animals taken as eggs or juveniles from the wild, where they would otherwise have had a very low probability of surviving to adulthood.

In the context of CITES, this term is used mainly in relation to populations of Appendix-I species of animals that are no longer endangered and that are transferred to Appendix II in accordance with Resolution Conf. 11.16 (Rev. CoP15), so that they may benefit from this form of management. In order to achieve adequate controls of trade in ranched specimens, parts and derivatives thereof are identified through a uniform marking system approved by the Conference of the Parties. This system may differ from species to species. Ranched species currently include only crocodilians, primarily ranched for their skins.

See also: Resolution Conf.  9.20 (Rev.); captive breeding

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.16 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: élevage en ranch / Spanish: cría en granjas

 

Range State

A State whose territory is within the natural range of distribution of a species.

French: Etat de l’aire de répartition / Spanish: Estado del área de distribución

Raw ivory

All whole elephant tusks, polished or unpolished and in any form whatsoever, and all elephant ivory in cut pieces, polished or unpolished and howsoever changed from its original form, except for ‘worked ivory’.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  10.10 (Rev. CoP16)]

French: ivoire brut / Spanish: marfil no trabajado

Readily recognizable

Characteristic of a specimen that appears from an accompanying document, the packaging or a mark or label, or from any other circumstances, to be a part or derivative of an animal or plant of a species included in the Appendices, unless such part or derivative is specifically exempted from the provisions of the Convention.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  9.6 (Rev. CoP16)]

French: facilement identifiable / Spanish: fácilmente identificable

Recruitment

The total number of individuals added to any particular demographic class of a population by either sexual or asexual reproduction.

[Definition from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: recrutement / Spanish: reclutamiento

Re-export

The export of any specimen that has previously been imported.

(Definition from Article I)

French: réexportation / Spanish: reexportación

Register

A list maintained by the Secretariat of:

See also: Article VII, paragraph 6

French: registre / Spanish: registro

Repackaging plant

A facility responsible for receiving and repackaging caviar into new primary containers.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: usine de reconditionnement / Spanish: empresa de reempaquetado

Rescue centre

An institution designated by the Management Authority to look after the welfare of living specimens, particularly those that have been seized or confiscated.

(Definition from Article VIII, paragraph 5)

French: centre de sauvetage / Spanish: centro de rescate

Reservation

A unilateral statement made by a State in relation to any species included in the Appendices or in relation to any part or derivative specified in relation to a species included in Appendix III, to the effect that the State is considered as not party to the Convention with regard to trade in specimens of this species.

Reservations may be made when a State becomes party to CITES; within 90 days of any amendment to Appendices I and II; or at any time with regard to species included in Appendix III (see Articles XV, XVI and XXIII of the Convention).

See also: Reservations

French: réserve / Spanish: reserva

Resolution

An agreement between the Parties regarding the interpretation of the Convention or the application of its provisions.

The Resolutions include recommendations on how to interpret the provisions of the Convention, decisions establishing the permanent committees, the budgets of the Secretariat, rules for controlling the trade (such as issuing permits and marking specimens in trade), and the texts establishing long-term processes, such as the Review of Significant Trade [see Resolution Conf.  12.8 (Rev. CoP13)]. Resolutions are typically intended to remain in effect for a long period.

See also: Introduction to Resolutions; Resolution Conf. 4.6 (Rev. CoP16); Decision

French: résolution / Spanish: resolución

Retrospective permit/certificate

A permit or certificate issued for a CITES specimen after it has already been exported or re-exported.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section XIII

French: permis/certificat rétroactif // Spanish: permiso/certificado retroactivo

S

Sample collection

For the purpose of the procedure described in Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16) on Permits and certificates, this term refers to a collection of legally acquired dead specimens, parts and derivatives of species included in Appendix II or III and of Appendix-I species bred in captivity or artificially propagated for commercial purposes, which are deemed to be Appendix-II specimens, which are not entitled to be sold or otherwise transferred, and that will cross borders for presentation purposes before returning to the country from which such movement was first authorized.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section XV]

French: collection d’échantillons / Spanish: colección de muestra

Sawn wood

Any wood simply sawn lengthwise or produced by a profile-chipping process. Sawn wood normally exceeds 6 mm in thickness (HS code 44.06, HS code 44.07).

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section XI

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  10.13 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: bois scié / Spanish: madera aserrada

Scientific Authority (SA)

A national scientific advisory body designated in accordance with Article IX of the Convention.

A Scientific Authority is responsible for providing technical and scientific advice to its Management Authority, in particular as to whether the export or introduction from the sea of a specimen will be detrimental to the survival in the wild of the species involved. A Party may designate more than one Scientific Authority.

The list and contact details of all Scientific Authorities can be accessed here. The regional directories prepared by the Plants Committee containing the contact details of specialists on plant issues in each Party can also be accessed here.

See also: Resolution Conf.  10.3

[Definition adapted from Articles I (f); III 2(a) and (b), and 5(a); IV 2(a), 3 and 6; and IX 1(b)]

French: autorité scientifique / Spanish: Autoridad Científica

Scientific committees / Technical committees

A term used to refer collectively to the Animals Committee and Plants Committee.

French: Comités scientifiques/ Spanish: comités científicos/técnicos

Scientific institution

See Resolution Conf.  11.15 (Rev. CoP12).

See also: register

French: institution scientifique / Spanish: institución científica

Second-generation offspring (F2) [or subsequent generation offspring (F3, F4, etc.)]

The progeny produced in a controlled environment from parents that were also produced in a controlled environment.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.16 (Rev.)]

French: Descendance de deuxième génération (F2) / Spanish: progenie de segunda generación (F2)

Secondary container

A receptacle into which primary containers or groups of primary containers are placed.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 1]

French: conteneur secondaire / Spanish: contenedor secundario

Security stamp

A numbered stamp with security features that may be affixed on an import/export permit or re-export certificate to prevent fraudulent use or forgery.

Security stamps are obtainable from the Secretariat. Their use is recommended but not compulsory.

See also: Notification to the Parties No. 2001/062

French: timbre de sécurité / Spanish: estampilla de seguridad

Significant Trade (Review of)

The review of the biological, trade and other relevant information on Appendix-II species subject to levels of trade that are significant in relation to the population of the species, in order to identify problems concerning the implementation of Article IV, paragraphs 2 (a), 3 and 6 (a) of the Convention, and possible solutions.

The species subject to the Review of Significant Trade are selected by the Animals and Plants Committees. Non-compliance by any State with the solutions recommended by these Committees may ultimately lead to a recommendation by the Standing Committee to suspend trade with that State in specimens of the species concerned.

See also: Resolution Conf.  12.8 (Rev. CoP13)

French: commerce important (étude du) / Spanish: comercio significativo (examen del)

Source code

A letter used on CITES permits and certificates to indicate the source of the specimen covered therein, as follows:

See also: purpose-of-transaction code

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section I]

French: code de source / Spanish: código de origin

Species

Any species, subspecies, or geographically separate population thereof.

See also: The CITES species; Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5

[Definition from Article I, paragraph (a)]

French: espèce / Spanish: especie

Species of least concern

Species for which the available information appears to indicate that the provisions of Article IV, paragraph 2 (a), 3 or 6 (a), are being met.

This phrase is used in the context of the Review of Significant Trade.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.8 (Rev. CoP13)]

French: espèce moins préoccupante / Spanish: especie de menor preocupación

Species of possible concern

Species for which it is not clear whether the provisions of Article IV, paragraph 2 (a), 3 or 6 (a), are being implemented.

This phrase is used in the context of the Review of Significant Trade.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.8 (Rev. CoP13)]

French: espèce peut-être préoccupante / Spanish: especie de posible preocupación

Species of urgent concern

Species for which the available information indicates that the provisions of Article IV, paragraph 2 (a), 3 or 6 (a), are not being implemented.

This phrase is used in the context of the Review of Significant Trade.

[Definition from Resolution Conf.  12.8 (Rev. CoP13)]

French: espèce dont il faut se préoccuper en urgence / Spanish: especie de urgente preocupación

Specimen

1) Any animal or plant, whether alive or dead;

2) In the case of an animal: for species included in Appendices I and II, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendix III, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof specified in Appendix III in relation to the species; and

3) In the case of a plant: for species included in Appendix I, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof; and for species included in Appendices II and III, any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof specified in Appendices II and III in relation to the species.

[Definition from Article I, paragraph (b) ]

French: spécimen / Spanish: espécimen

Split-listing

The inclusion of one or more subspecies or populations of a species in one Appendix while other subspecies or populations are included in another Appendix or are not included.

In case of split-listing, annotations in the Appendices indicate which subspecies or population is included in each Appendix.

See also: Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 3

French: inscription scindée / Spanish: inclusión dividida

Standard nomenclature

The scientific names adopted by the Conference of the Parties for CITES-listed species.

The adopted names are the ones that should be used inter alia on permits and certificates.

The Conference of the Parties has adopted the taxonomic and nomenclatural references listed in the Annex to Resolution Conf. 12.11 (Rev. CoP15) as the official standard references for species included in the Appendices.

The Conference has also recognized the Checklist of CITES species, compiled by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2005, and its updates, as an official digest of scientific names contained in the standard references, that fully reflects the taxonomy and nomenclature contained in the original species proposals, the recommendations of the Animals or Plants Committee and all accepted names included in the standard references that have been adopted by the Conference of the Parties for species included in the Appendices.

The Checklist of CITES species can be downloaded in PDF format here and the CITES species database from which it is produced can also be queried online.

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.11 (Rev. CoP15) ; CITES species database

French: nomenclature normalisée / Spanish: nomenclature normalizada

Standing Committee (SC)

A committee established by the Conference of the Parties, which performs a variety of functions within the policy agreed to by the Conference. It is responsible for providing policy guidance to the Secretariat concerning the implementation of the Convention and for overseeing the management of the Secretariat's budget. It coordinates and oversees, where required, the work of other committees and working groups; carries out tasks given to it by the Conference of the Parties and drafts resolutions for consideration by the Conference.

See also: The structure of CITES; Standing Committee; Standing Committeemeetings; Resolution Conf.  11.1 (Rev. CoP16)

French: Comité permanent / Spanish: Comité Permanente

Stricter domestic measures

Unilateral measures taken by a Party implementing conditions for trade that go beyond what is required by the Convention.

Article XIV, paragraph 1, of the Convention states that the provisions of CITES shall in no way affect the right of Parties to adopt:

(a) stricter domestic measures regarding the conditions for trade, taking, possession or transport of specimens of species included in Appendices I, II and III, or the complete prohibition thereof; or

(b) domestic measures restricting or prohibiting trade, taking, possession or transport of species not included in Appendix I, II or III.

French: mesures internes plus strictes / Spanish: medidas internas más estrictas

Subpopulation

A geographically or otherwise distinct group which has little exchange with other groups in the population.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: sous-population / Spanish: subpoblación

Sustainable use

The use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

See also: Resolution Conf. 13.2 (Rev. CoP14)

(Definition from Article 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity)

French: utilisation durable / Spanish: utilización sostenible

T  

Threatened with extinction

Characteristic of a species that meets, or is likely to meet, at least one of the following criteria:

A. The wild population is small, and is characterized by at least one of the following:

i) an observed, inferred or projected decline in the number of individuals or the area and quality of habitat; or
ii) each subpopulation being very small; or
iii) a majority of individuals being concentrated geographically during one or more life-history phases; or
iv) large short-term fluctuations in population size; or
v) a high vulnerability to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors.

B. The wild population has a restricted area of distribution and is characterized by at least one of the following:

i) fragmentation or occurrence at very few locations; or
ii) large fluctuations in the area of distribution or the number of subpopulations; or
iii) a high vulnerability to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors; or
iv) an observed, inferred or projected decrease in any one of the following:

– the area of distribution; or
– the area of habitat; or
– the number of subpopulations; or
– the number of individuals; or
– the quality of habitat; or
– the recruitment.

C. A marked decline in the population size in the wild, which has been either:
i) observed as ongoing or as having occurred in the past (but with a potential to resume); or
ii) inferred or projected on the basis of any one of the following:

– a decrease in area of habitat; or
– a decrease in quality of habitat; or
– levels or patterns of exploitation; or
– a high vulnerability to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors; or
– a decreasing recruitment.

The vulnerability of a species to threats of extinction depends on its population demographics, biological characteristics, (such as body size, trophic level, life cycle, breeding structure or social structure requirements for successful reproduction), and vulnerability due to aggregating habits, natural fluctuations in population size, and/or residency/migratory patterns. This makes it impossible to give numerical threshold values for population size or area of distribution that are applicable to all taxa.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annexes 1 and 5]

French: menacée d’extinction / Spanish: amenazada de extinción

Tourist souvenir

See 'Personal effect / Household effect'.

French: souvenir pour touriste / Spanish: recuerdo para turistas

Trade

Any export, re-export, import and introduction from the sea.

(Definition from Article I)

French: commerce / Spanish: comercio

Traditional medicine

1) The medicinal preparations, often based on centuries-old traditions, that contain derivatives from plants or animals that have proven or reputed medicinal properties.

2) The science or practice of restoring and preserving health based on such preparations.

French: remède traditionnel; médecine traditionnelle / Spanish: medicina tradicional

Transhipment

Transfer of a specimen from one carrier or form of transport to another.

The Conference of the Parties recommends in Resolution Conf.  9.7 (Rev. CoP15) that, for the purpose of Article VII, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the phrase ‘transit or transhipment of specimens’ be interpreted to refer only to:

a) specimens that remain in Customs control and are in the process of shipment to a named consignee when any interruption in the movement arises only from the arrangements necessitated by this form of traffic.

b) The cross-border movements of sample collections of specimens that comply with the provisions of section XV of Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16) and are accompanied by an ATA carnet.

See also: transit

French: transbordement / Spanish: transbordo

Transit

Passage of a specimen across or through a country that is neither its country of origin nor its country of destination.

The Conference of the Parties recommends in Resolution Conf.  9.7 (Rev. CoP15) that, for the purpose of Article VII, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the phrase ‘transit or transhipment of specimens’ be interpreted to refer only to:

a) specimens that remain in Customs control and are in the process of shipment to a named consignee when any interruption in the movement arises only from the arrangements necessitated by this form of traffic.

b) The cross-border movements of sample collections of specimens that comply with the provisions of section XV of Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16) and are accompanied by an ATA carnet.

See also: transhipment

French: transit / Spanish: tránsito

U

Uniform marking system

A system of marking each product approved by the Conference of the Parties for a species, which, as a minimum, includes the International Organization for Standardization two-letter code for the country of origin, a unique identification number and the year of production or, for products in stock or manufactured from products of the operation in stock at the time of the proposal, the year of approval of the proposal.

Marking systems may differ from species to species.

See also: Resolutions Conf.  8.13 (Rev.) [coded-microchip implants for live animals]; Conf.  11.12 (Rev. CoP15) [crocodilian skins]; Conf.  12.7 (Rev. CoP16), Annexes 1 and 2 [caviar]

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  11.16 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: méthode de marquage uniforme / Spanish: sistema de marcado uniforme

V

Veneer sheet

A thin layer or sheet of wood of uniform thickness, usually 6 mm or less, usually peeled or sliced, for use in making plywood, for veneering furniture, veneer containers, etc. (HS code 44.08).

See also: Resolution Conf. 12.3 (Rev. CoP16), Section XI

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.13 (Rev. CoP15)]

French: placage / Spanish: lámina de chapa de madera

Vulnerability

The susceptibility to intrinsic or external effects which increase the risk of extinction (even when mitigating factors are taken into account).

There are a number of taxon- or case-specific biological and other factors that may affect the extinction risk associated with a given percentage decline, small population size or restricted area of distribution. These can be, but are not limited to, aspects of any of the following:

Intrinsic factors

– Life history (e.g. low fecundity, slow growth rate of the individual, high age at first maturity, long generation time)
– Low absolute numbers or biomass or restricted area of distribution
– Population structure (age/size structure, sex ratio)
– Behavioural factors (e.g. social structure, migration, aggregating behaviour)
– Density (for sessile or semi-sessile species)
– Specialized niche requirements (e.g. diet, habitat)
– Species associations such as symbiosis and other forms of co-dependency
– Reduced genetic diversity
– Depensation (prone to continuing decline even in the absence of exploitation)
– Endemism
– Seed dispersal mechanism
– Specialized pollinators

Extrinsic factors

– Selectivity of removals (that may compromise recruitment)
– Threats from alien invasive species (hybridization, disease transmission, depredation, etc.)
– Habitat degradation (contamination, soil erosion, alteration by alien invasive species, etc.)
– Habitat loss/destruction
– Habitat fragmentation
– Harsh environmental conditions
– Threats from disease
– Rapid environmental change (e.g. climate regime shifts)
– Stochastic events.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: vulnérabilité / Spanish: vulnerabilidad

W

Wild population

The total number of free-living individuals of a species within its area of distribution.

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf. 9.24 (Rev. CoP16), Annex 5]

French: population sauvage / Spanish: población silvestre

Woodchips

Wood that has been reduced to small pieces.

This term is used in annotation #7 in the CITES Appendices, in relation to plant taxa. The definition is to be reviewed by a working group of the Standing Committee before the 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2016.

See also: Appendices; extract; finished product packaged and ready for retail trade; powder

[Definition from document CoP16 Doc. 76 (Rev. 1)]

French: copeaux de bois / Spanish: astillas de madera

Worked ivory

Ivory that has been carved, shaped or processed, either fully or partially. This expression does not include whole tusks in any form, except where the whole surface has been carved.

See also: raw ivory

[Definition adapted from Resolution Conf.  10.10 (Rev. CoP16)]

French: ivoire travaillé / Spanish: marfil trabajado

Latest update: 08.10.2013