CITES / MIKE Projet Pilote, Afrique Centrale

ANNEX 5. SELECTION AND TRAINING OF PATROL SECRETARIES

PRINCIPLES:

Monitoring of anti-poaching and law enforcement requires that proper information is collected in the field during guard patrols. The information required by MIKE will be collected by a trained Patrol Secretary who will be associated with each patrol.

Patrol secretaries will be identified by MIKE Site or National Officers in collaboration with protected areas managers. Secretaries will be trained by the MIKE officers.

It is critical to understand at the outset what the objectives of a patrol are, and how these relate to the need for monitoring information for MIKE.

  1. The objective of guard missions is to conduct patrols, recover illegal products, make arrests and acquire information necessary for Law Enforcement at the site.
  2. The guard patrols should not be considered a purely research endeavor. The priority of the guards should not be to furnish the same information as a research team. In addition, information gathering should not interfere with other patrol activities.
  3. Nevertheless, guard patrols should provide information needed for monitoring of their activities, additional information useful for management, and documentation of significant observations that can be followed up by research teams.

SELECTION OF PATROL SECRETARIES

Collaboration with Protected Area managers. Patrol Secretaries are members of the PA protection team (whether park guards, ecoguards, community patrol leaders, etc.) thus it is essential that they be selected in collaboration with the PA manager for the site, and that their training and support be incorporated into the PA management strategy

Qualifications and criteria. Patrol Secretaries should be literate (able to read and write), and have had some experience with field inventories to understand the general process of information collection. They should be able to use basic field instruments (compass, GPS) and to read and work with maps. They should be regarded as responsible individuals by fellow guards, and be capable of ensuring that fellow guards cooperate in providing necessary information. Most importantly, they must be people of high integrity and honesty.

Train more than one. It is important to have more than one PS trained, especially in areas of high patrol activity. A trained Patrol Secretary should accompany every patrol, if possible.

TRAINING NEEDED:

Equipment needed and care of equipment (compass, GPS)

Use of GPS

Map Reading and recording on maps

Patrol Forms and their use

Care of maps and reports in the field

Debriefing

 

ANNEX 6. Village Surveys for local knowledge of elephant presence, illegal elephant killing. and human-elephant conflict

INTRODUCTION

While human presence and elephant numbers are negatively correlated in most areas in Africa, some human-derived habitats, in particular cultivated gardens and fallow (jachères), are nevertheless selected elephant habitats. Indeed, elephant crop raiding is a major problem in almost all areas where elephants and humans coexist. Because of their potentially major impact on agriculture local communities are often sensitive indicators of elephant presence and absence in a given area. Trends in agricultural practices in areas where humans and elephants coexist may be a significant factor in determining elephant distributions. Crop raiding may also be directly and indirectly linked to illegal elephant killing.

The Objectives for MIKE in monitoring human elephant conflict are:

  1. To provide systematic information on trends in elephant distributions and elephant use of human habitats, and in particular agricultural lands, in areas where humans and elephants coexist.
  2. To provide systematic information on human elephant conflict and its linkage to illegal elephant killing across a gradient of settlement density.

SURVEY DESIGN

We recommend a stratified survey design that will result in an unbiased sample of villages that will be selected for enquêtes. We suggest use of a selection based on a grid division of the site base map, or another selection procedure that results in a representative sample. Details for this are further discussed in the text.

All settlements within the MIKE site area should be mapped on site base map, including, as possible, mining or logging camps. Surveys will be conducted through village-based interviews and visits to elephant-damaged fields. Surveys can be stratified across a gradient of settlement types, size and distance from remote forest and protected area. Surveys of settlements within the areas of MIKE field inventories will be given priority. Data on elephant occurrence, crop raiding, and village response to it will be recorded for survey villages. Damage levels in gardens will be assessed for sites with current crop raiding.

Settlements will be surveyed on an annual or bi-annual basis, as possible.

ANALYSIS

Current and past elephant activity will be mapped entered into site databases and related to settlement size, location and indices of economic and agricultural activity. Patterns in crop raiding and elephant presence will be summarized on an annual basis. Settlement size, access and socio-economic variables will be mapped to establish gradients of human presence impact, and human-elephant conflict. MIKE field surveys will evaluate elephant distributions in relation to socio-economic and demographic parameters of surveyed settlements. Data from village surveys will also permit indices of human-elephant conflict and illegal killing to be established for the site.

EXPLANATORY NOTES FOR FILLING OUT FORMS

Data will be collected by National Officers, and/or by Field Team Leaders under direction of National Officers. Forms will be filled in directly during interviews, or from notes taken at the time. The form should be completed as soon as possible after a village interview since some information will have not been noted down directly at the time it was reported.

Attempt to interview a representative sample of village inhabitants (including non-nationals resident). Individuals likely to have knowledge of elephant presence, and illegal killing should be interviewed, if they can be identified. Interviews of some ethnic groups (pygmies) may require particular approaches. Interview individuals capable of providing quality reports. Except for very small settlements, at least five individuals providing quality interviews should be contacted.

Introductory Material

Fill in as indicated. Each form should have a unique identification number. Note number of individuals who provided information during interviews.

Location

Provide required information. Where the MIKE site consists of a protected area, note settlement location in relation to park or reserve boundaries.

Demographics

Identify settlement type, and all pertinent access routes. Provide an estimate of settlement population, and source for this figure. This may be approximate. Indicate presence of non-nationals including expatriate Africans, resident in the settlement and major ethnic groups represented, if this is the case. Provide a count, or estimate of active households, if this is possible.

Socio-economics

Provide requested information to characterize the economic base of the settlement and socio-economic indicators. Notes can be used to specify further information as needed. Refer to importance scoring codes in the table.

Elephant Conflict

Provide details on the latest reported elephant occurrence in the village vicinity. Write additional location notes only where observers can provide specific details. Provide map locations if these are forthcoming. Provide an estimate of the number of elephant occurrences known to villagers over the preceding 12-month period. Characterize the overall pattern of elephant visitation over the last twelve months by circling the most appropriate category. Provide additional notes to describe seasonal elephant occurrence.

Provide approximate or exact date of latest occurrence of elephant crop raiding, and number of households and gardens affected. Indicate frequency of other elephant crop raiding events over the previous 12 months, and characterize overall patterns, including group sizes, and selected crops, as indicated. Note what other fauna are known crop raiders in the area. Indicate defense systems employed by the settlement to protect against crop raiding, and level of success. Other kills include poaching linked to crop raiding, if this information is forthcoming.

Elephant Killing

Information availability. Interviews concerning illegal elephant killing should be treated very sensitively from the outset. Any discussion of illegal activities related to elephants should be should be conducted with care, using indirect evidence, and indirect questioning. For example, information on elephant meat consumption may be had in discussions of diet in general. Information can not always be obtained due to suspicion, fear, lack of time, or other factors. If this appears to be the case, interviews and questioning should not be pursued. Indicate whether further information could be obtained if interviews could be conducted a second time over a longer period. Provide additional notes to help clarify source of information (pygmies interviewed, one former hunter interviewed, etc.)

Evidence. Provide information shown on table. Use additional notes to amplify this and provide specific details, such as locations of elephant poachers or villages where elephant products transit.

 

VILLAGE SURVEYS

I . LOCATION AND SURVEY IDENTIFICATION

(Please fill in the appropriate answer)

No

CODE

QUESTION

ANSWER

1

IDNU

FORM ID No.

 

2

MIKE

MIKE Site Name

 

3

NAME

Settlement name

 

4

DATE

Survey date

 

5

PIDN

Previous survey Form ID No.

 

6

PDAT

Previous survey date

 

7

INDS

Number of Individuals interviewed in survey

 

8

GPS

Geographic Position System (GPS) location

 

9

MAPG

Map(Grid ID)

 

10

DIPA

Location relative to Protected Area (PA)

0 = Outside PA

1 = Along PA border

2 = Inside PA borders

II. DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE SETTLEMENT

No

CODE

QUESTION

ANSWER

11

SETY

Settlement type

1= Permanent village

2=Semi-permanent village or camp (mining, fishing, forestry)

3=Itinerant camp

4 = Other (describe in notes)

12

ACCE

What is the access to the settlement ?

1= Road

2 = Road and Water

3= Water only

4=Footpath only

13

POPU

Estimated total population of the settlement

Indicate "Unknown" if no estimate available

14

SOUR

Source of estimate

Indicate "Unknown" if no source of estimate available

15

HHOC

Number of occupied (active )households

Indicate "Unknown" if no count available

16

ETHN

Major Ethnic groups ( rank by order of importance)

1----------------------------------

2----------------------------------

3----------------------------------

17

EXPA

Are expatriates (non-nationals) present?

0= No

1= yes

9 = Unknown

 

III SUBSISTENCE AND SOURCES OF INCOME IN SETTLEMENT

No

CODE

 

ANSWER

18

FCRO

Importance of subsistence food crop cultivation

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

19

CCRO

Importance of cash crop cultivation ( cocoa, cotton, coffee, etc

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

20

MIPI

Importance of Industrial Mining/petroleum activities

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

21

MIPA

Importance of Artisanal Mining activities

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

22

INLG

Importance of Industrial logging

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

23

SSLG

Importance of Artisanal logging

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

24

NTFP

Importance of Non-timber forest products

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

25

HUCO

Importance of Commercial hunting

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

26

HUSU

Importance of Subsistence hunting

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

27

ADMI

Importance of government employment (except PA and police/military)

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

28

MILT

Importance of military, gendarme or police employment

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

29

PROA

Importance Protected Area employment

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

30

NGOS

Presence of NGO/project employment

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

31

COMM

Importance of retail / commercial trade (markets, shops)

0= not important

1=minor importance

2=major importance

9 = unknown

IV. SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS IN SETTLEMENT

No

CODE

 

ANSWER

33

POLI

presence of police station

0= not present

1= present

34

BARR

Presence of military post or barracks

0= not present

1= present

35

CHEF

presence of Chef de Localité (village mayor)

0= not present

1= present

36

ADMI

presence of Other administrative officials

0= not present

1= present

37

EDPR

presence of primary school(s)

0= not present

1= present

38

EDSC

Presence of Secondary school (s)

0= not present

1= present

39

EDTR

Presence of training or koranic school

0= not present

1= present

40

CESA

Presence of primary heath care dispensary ( centre de santé)

0= not present

1= present

41

HOSP

Presence of hospital

0= not present

1= present

42

MAKT

Presence of market

0= not present

1= present

43

SHOP

Presence of shops

0= not present

1= present

V. ELEPHANT PRESENCE

44. Date most recent report of Elephants( ELDATE):-Day-------------Month------------Year-----------------

Circle the appropriate answer.

No

 

Near Village/ home gardens

Nearby Forest
( < 5 km from settlement)

Distant Forest
(> 5km from settlement)

45

Is information on elephant available?

AWAR 1

1=yes

0=No

AWAR_2

1=yes

0=No

AWAR_3

1=yes

0=No

46

Year (4 digits) of last occurrence?

ELDT 1
0000 = no occurrence
9999 = unknown

ELDT 2
0000 = no occurrence
9999 = unknown

ELDT 2
0000 = no occurrence
9999 = unknown

47

How many elephants occurred?

ELNUM 1

0= No elephant

1=Individual

2=Small group (<5)

3=Large group

4= Unknown

ELNUM 2

0= No elephant

1=Individual

2=Small group (<5)

3=Large group

4= Unknown

ELNUM 3

0= No elephant

1=Individual

2=Small group (<5)

3=Large group

4= Unknown

 

 

Occurrences in the last 12 months:

Circle the appropriate answer.

No

 

Near Village/ home gardens

Nearby Forest
( < 5 km from settlement)

Distant Forest
(> 5km from settlement)

48

Elephant occurrences in last 12 months

OCYR 1

0= None

1=1-5 times

2 = > 5 times

3 = unknown

OCYR 2

0= None

1=1-5 times

2 = > 5 times

3 = unknown

OCYR 3

0= None

1=1-5 times

2 = > 5 times

3 = unknown

49

Occurrence patterns

OCPT 1

0=irregular and rare

1=regular

2=frequent

3=continuous

4=seasonal

5=unknown

OCPT 2

0=irregular and rare

1=regular

2=frequent

3=continuous

4=seasonal

5=unknown

OCPT 3

0=irregular and rare

1=regular

2=frequent

3=continuous

4=seasonal

5=unknown

VI ELEPHANT CROP RAIDING

Circle the appropriate answer.

No

CODE

 

ANSWER

50

CRLA

Crop raiding in last 12 months

0= None

1=1-2 times

2= > 2 times

3= unknown

51

CRRA1

Date of latest elephant crop raiding

Month__________

Year____________

Enter "NONE" for no occurrence

Enter "UNKNOWN" if date not known

52

CRRA2

Number of gardens affected

0= None

1 = 1 garden

2 = 2 – 5 gardens

3 = > 5 gardens

4 = unknown

53

CRRA2

Number of Households affected

0= None

1 = 1 household

2 = 2 – 5 households

3 = > 5 households

4 = unknown

54

CRPA

Crop raiding pattern

0=irregular and rare

1=regular

2=frequent

3=continuous

4=seasonal

5=unkown

55

ELCR

Elephant crop raiders

0= none

1 = single animal always

2 = single and/or group

3 = unknown

56

FIEL

Types of damage

1= food crop field only

2= food and cash crops

3 = food stores (granary)

4 = houses or shelters

5=Others (describe):

57

RAFA

All Crop raiding Animals ( please rank by order of importance to villagers)

1_______________

2_______________

3_______________

 

58 Did Survey team inspect elephant damage? YES / NO

59. Did Survey team produce additional notes on damage? YES / NO

60. Are notes attached to this report?: YES / NO

VII DEFENCE STRATEGIES: OCCURRENCE AND EFFECTIVENESS IN DETERRING ELEPHANT DAMAGE

No

CODE

 

ANSWER

61

DEFE_0

No strategy

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

62

DEFE1

Early warning

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

63

DEFE2

Barrier

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

64

DEFE3

Repulsion

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

65

DEFE4

Legal kill

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

66

DEFE5

Illegal kill

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

67

DEFE6

Others ( specify )

0= Not used

1= Used, no success

2 = Used, limited success

3 = Used, high success

4 = Used, success not known

 

VIII ILLEGAL ELEPHANT KILLING

Information availability:

(Please consider one category only )

No

CODE

OBSERVATIONS

ANSWER

68

INFO

Interviews / observations not possible and Information not available

0=no

1= Yes

69

INQU

Indirect questioning possible on some questions

0=no

1= Yes

70

DIQU

Direct questioning possible for most questions

0=no

1= Yes

71

OTQU

Other (specify)

0=no

1= Yes

 

Summary of Evidence

Circle the appropriate answer.

#

CODE

EVIDENCE

ANSWER

QUANTITY / FREQUENCY

1

 

ELME 1

Elephant meat eaten

ELME 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELME 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

2

OBUM

Other bush meat eaten

OBUM 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

OBUM 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

3

ELGU

Elephant guns in village

ELGU 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELGU 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

4

OTGU

Other guns in village

OTGU 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

OTGU 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

5

ELPO

Elephant poachers based in village

ELPO 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELPO 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

6

ELPT

Elephant poachers transitory in village

ELPT 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELPT 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

7

ELPE

Elephant poachers not in village, but known elsewhere

ELPE 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELPE 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

8

ELPR

Elephant products (meat/ivory) consumed in village

ELPR 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELPR 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

9

ELPP

Elephant products (meat/ivory) transitory in village

ELPP 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELPP 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

10

ELEE

Elephant products (meat/ivory) not in village, but known elsewhere

ELEE 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

ELEE 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

11

OTSS

Other (describe)

OTSS 1

0=No

1=Yes

9 = No information available

OTSS 2

0= None

1=Few / Little

2=Many / Much

9 = No information available

IX Additional Notes