Resolution Conf. 8.3 (Rev. CoP13)

Recognition of the benefits of trade in wildlife

NOTING that the majority of species of wild fauna and flora that CITES seeks to protect and enhance occur in the developing countries of the world;

RECOGNIZING that the sustainable use of wild fauna and flora, whether consumptive or non-consumptive, provides an economically competitive land-use option;

BEING AWARE that, unless conservation programmes take into account the needs of local people and provide incentives for sustainable use of wild fauna and flora, conversion to alternative forms of land use may occur;

RECOGNIZING that over-utilization is detrimental to the conservation of wild fauna and flora;

RECOGNIZING further that legal trade in a species should not lead to increases in illegal trade anywhere in its range;

RECOGNIZING also that the returns from legal use may provide funds and incentives to support the management of wild fauna and flora to contain the illegal trade;

ACKNOWLEDGING that the aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational and other largely non-consumptive uses of wild fauna and flora are also of enormous importance;

RECOGNIZING that there are many species for which trade would be detrimental to their survival;


  1. RECOGNIZES that commercial trade may be beneficial to the conservation of species and ecosystems, and to the development of local people when carried out at levels that are not detrimental to the survival of the species in question; and
  2. RECOGNIZES that implementation of CITES-listing decisions should take into account potential impacts on the livelihoods of the poor.


* Amended at the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, and further amended by the Secretariat in compliance with Decision 14.19 and with the decisions adopted at the 61st meeting of the Standing Committee.

Number / Code: 
Conf. 8.3 (Rev. CoP13)
COP meeting: 
Eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties